跨性別同盟手冊

 A Handbook for Trans Ally

 

自序

「是非男女」系列就像是我的孩子,每次生產時都讓我痛不欲生。懷胎十月孕育著我對每一冊內容的期許,期待著寶寶的出生,會帶來許多人的祝福。亦因為任性,第一個寶寶在沒有父親血脈的繼承下,誕生成為一本簡單通俗的重要參考文獻,為華文世界帶來一本一般人能夠看得明白的跨性別資訊手冊。

既然闖出了一片天地,亦沒有看到有後來者,就希望能夠延續一開始時的方向,寫出一系列針對社會大眾的跨性別手冊,亦希望能夠籌募得到資金,將暫時三本的中文手冊翻譯成為英文版本,讓西方國家一方面能夠通過這個系列的手冊了解香港跨性別族群狀況,亦能補足國際上於這方面的資訊不足。

感謝一直以來支持跨性別資源中心的基金會、企業及個人,特別是一直以來支持此手冊出版的政制及內地事務局及其同事、Astraea正義女神基金會、Goldman Sachs、ANZ、Fresh Field及Mr. Peter Siembab。感謝社會上很多很有心無論認不認識我但一直支持我工作的人士,我身邊無數的朋友,我的家人和親戚!我的中學同學及我的親戚實在太可愛!您們的不離不棄讓我能夠支撐到今天!我在同志運動的戰友們也真的在有聲無聲中推了我一把,沒有大家,我沒可能走到今天!感謝Mandy Lee經常照顧我的肚子及聽我哭訴!感謝我的隊友Jamie及新加入的老朋友Charissa願意陪我傻和陪我夢想!也感謝民主黨內很多黨友的鼓勵及支持,容讓我成為一個政治素人,容讓我夢想以政治改變社會,讓更多人活得更好!多謝卿姐邀請我加入民主黨,縱然路不好走,但我絕不後悔!

 

梁詠恩 Joanne Leung

2016年生日後兩天寫於家中

 

P.S. 今天收到一位跨性別朋友離世的通知,願以此書記念過往身邊分別離開我們的幾位友人,亦希望此手冊,能夠讓更多的跨性別朋友,在以後的日子裡活得更好!誠心所願!

 

引言

誰為男女定分界?是上帝嗎?是人類的生殖器官嗎?到底什麼是男?什麼是女?

一般人認為男女有別,不容越界。但事實是我們在一般生活、社交、文化、宗教及情感等互動中所認知及理解的所謂「性別」,均與人類的生殖器官無關。

跨性別(Transgender)是近代才發展出來的概念,隨著越來越多跨性別個體的現身及主流媒體的報導,大眾已比較認識及接受這個身份。2016年2月上映的電影「丹麥女孩」轟動世界,獲多項奧斯卡提名,艾莉西亞維坎德(Alicia Vikander)更憑該劇獲頒最佳女配角獎項。事實上,遠古社會對性別及性愛的理解並不如現在一樣。但我們只能夠從零碎的歷史痕跡中想像人類過往對世界事物的理解。今天,跨性別者就像是重生一樣,經歷了對性別身份的否定及掙扎,勇敢地活出一個真實的自己。社會又能否透過TA們的故事,尋回一個失落已久,人類對性別理解的原始藍圖。

 

導讀

本手冊是跨性別資源中心出版的「是非男女」系列之第三本,第一冊「跨性別本土閱讀手冊」講述香港跨性別群體的發展歷史、現況及基本概念。第二冊「跨性別家長手冊」圍繞家長與跨性別子女的相處及關係。而本冊主要闡述社會如何接納及平等對待跨性別人士,活出更和諧有愛的社會氛圍。

本手冊不會大量重複上兩冊的內容,建議讀者先從第一冊開始閱讀,雖然第二冊主題為孩子與家長的關係,但非常適合一般大眾了解跨性別人士怎樣面對家庭壓力及成長所遇到的種種困難與感受。所有手冊均可於本中心網站下載,如需要書籍作傳閱或收藏,可聯絡本中心免費索取。願此手冊能夠令社會人士更明白跨性別群體的處境,在改善TA們的生活狀況及減輕TA們所承受的壓力的同時,也讓社會人士與這個隱蔽但為數不少的群體接觸時避免不必要的誤解與衝突。

 

怎樣能成為跨性別同盟

感謝您願意成為跨性別的盟友(Trans Ally),作為支持者不是要完全理解、明白或認同什麼是跨性別,最重要的是接納與包容與你不一樣的人,認同每一個個體都是獨特的、尊貴的,在社會上有與生俱來的權利與義務,不應因為不同的性傾向或性別認同而受到不平等的對待或歧視!

 

跨性別是什麼?

跨性別(Transgender)英文簡寫為TG,基本的定義是任何人不接納或不認同自己的原生性別(出生時的性別),或不認同社會賦予TA的性別規範,均是跨性別人士。TA的狀況可以呈現或表達於其對自身性別的心理認同、對身體的期望、社會性別身份、家庭角色、性行為模式、性別氣質表達及衣著等等。但不是每一個符合以上定義的人也認同自己是跨性別人士,我們需尊重個人的身份認同, 不可隨意將標籤加諸別人身上。一般估計人口中每300-500人就有一位跨性別人士。

Transgender這個英文字是美國的維吉妮亞·普林斯(Virginia Prince)在1970年代創造的,與Transsexual(變性者)這個名詞作對照,指出那些並不希望進行手術「改變生理性別(Sex)」及/或那些認為他們是處於兩個社會性別(Gender)中間的人。隨著社會對跨性別群體的理解及群體的演化,跨性別這個名詞更進一步發展成社會上對性別理解的一個運動方向。

跨性別群體中的個體會因著其不同程度的困擾、掙扎、需要、取向、條件及環境因素,選擇自己的定位與身份,一般較為人熟悉的是「變性欲者」及「易服者」。前者被一般大眾稱為「變性人」或「換性人」,英文是"Transsexual",簡稱TS,正確定義應為有強烈及持續改變性別欲望的人士,所以並不一定是指完成了性別重置手術的人士。坊間常以「人妖」一詞稱呼變性人,應注意「人妖」這個名詞帶有貶義,應避免引用在跨性別或變性人身上。再者「人妖」多指泰國從事舞台表演的變性藝人,其獨特之處在於外貌非常女性化,但仍保有男性之生殖器官。

「易服者」通常是指完全沒有或沒有強烈改變性別慾望的男性,會部份時間或全時間穿著女裝。反之女性有類似情況一般不會被定義為易服,因社會普遍接受女性穿著男裝或中性打扮。有不少市民會將這種身份說成「易服癖」,但這個詞語帶有病態意味,不應用於跨性別人士身上。易服者的「易服」是基於需要,而不是癖好。據了解,易服人士對易服的需要各有不同的看法,有的因為扮演男人壓力太大,易服是一種抒壓方法;有的是因為美感;有的是性別上的認同;有的是對社會性別二元的一個挑戰,可謂各適其式。

跨性別人士可以是異性戀、同性戀、雙性戀、泛性戀、無性戀,甚至是不作定義或不知道。跨性別人士面對的是自身的「性別認同」,而異性戀、同性戀等面對的是愛慾對象的性別,稱之為「性傾向」。性別認同與性傾向的身份關係,在此我們會以「性/別身份」這個名詞代表。我們也會以「同志」代表跨性別和同性戀等擁有不同性/別身份的人士。

 

跨性別與同志群體

跨性別與同性戀是兩個不同的概念,群體狀況及特質亦多有不同。跨性別是指一個人在其自身性別上的認同與社會上大多數人不一樣。而同性戀、雙性戀、泛性戀及無性戀等的身份是指該人在性與愛方面,其對象是何種性別。雖然兩個概念指的是不同特性,但在同志群體中,我們不難發現這些特性、身份常會交叉存在。畢竟人性都是立體及多樣化的,跨性別與同性戀的身份可以並存。況且這兩個身份定義也沒有一刀切地完全分割,同性戀和異性戀,跨性戀和非跨性別中間都存在著一定的模糊性,就好像光譜中的不同部分,而不是0和1的分別。

「同志」一詞於80年代在香港出現,原意指同性戀者,及後發展成為一個對 LGBT 以至 I 身份的總稱,也普遍於中國大陸、台灣、新加坡、馬來西亞等華人社會中被使用。早於西方及華人社會仍未普遍認識跨性別這個身份的年代,一般生理男性喜歡男性都被視為男同性戀者。就算是後期跨性別這個身份比較被認知後,部份喜歡男性的跨性別者仍然活躍於男同志圈內,或對外以男同性戀者的身份生活,因這樣比較容易找對象及發展關系。直到近年(西方世界要比香港發展早至少二十年)跨性別群體越來越成熟,人們及群體內對其身份的認同比較明顯,跨性別這個身份才變得比較清晰及突出。

跨性別群體在不同國家與文化下的發展也有很大的差別,有些國家的跨性別群體相對於整個同志群體來說比較壯大及主導,但觀乎華人社會中,跨性別群體都是比較隱蔽,及多數由其他同志群體帶動發展。

 

出櫃 (Come Out)

出櫃(Come Out)的意思,在同志群體當中指向某些人公開自己的性/別身份。出櫃對同志來說很多時都是一個不得已的行動,是擔心及冒險的。

出櫃的主要面向有以下幾種:

  1. 向朋友出櫃:作為同志,所遇到的壓力不小,同志身邊亦未必有同志朋友支援。當同志還在性/別疑惑及仍在探索時,未進入群體當中、未找到相關的服務機構支援時,TA很需要朋友聆聽TA的想法,TA通常會找較為可信的,或者與TA沒有太大關連的朋友傾訴心事。
  2. 向家人出櫃:有小部份同志因其性/別身份,可能會跟家人關係較為疏離甚至不和。但家人始終是家人,亦有很多同志跟家人關係都如一般人親密,隱瞞其性/別身份對於TA們來說會很難受,最終希望家人能夠知道及接納。家人的接納對同志有極大的影響,能夠讓其積極面對人生的起跌及感受。傳統家庭也會對子女的婚姻關係有期望,經常是當事人的壓力來源。所以同志很多時候都希望能夠跟家人出櫃。(關於家人關係,請參閱「是非男女」第二冊之「跨性別家長手冊」)
  3. 向同事或公司出櫃:同志如能夠正面對待及肯定其性/別身份,並相信公司及同事抱持接納的態度,才會勇於向同事出櫃。相反,在沒有一個安全的空間,一般同志都不太願意冒險,賠上自己的事業及晉升機會。
  4. 向教會出櫃:很多同志其實都隱藏在教會中。同志也有如一般人一樣有不同的宗教信仰。有的是因父母關系,從小在教會環境裡長大,有些因不同原因進入教會群體。無論怎樣,除非教會在同志議題上沒有歧視,否則同志信徒很可能因教會的教義而選擇離開或跟教會出櫃。不幸的是,有些教會會因此而強迫其改變,又或者要求TA不可告訴其他教會內的信徒,而讓TA們一心追隨信仰的熱誠受到傷害。
  5. 向公眾出櫃:向公眾出櫃或稱全公開指不介意任何人知道其性/別身份,而並非指在公眾途徑如媒體上公開自己的身份。通常願意公開出櫃的同志,都非常接納自己的身份,亦有能力及準備面對一切的攻擊和挑戰,有非常正能量的思想。公開出櫃也是一種很有力的倡議及運動工具,但一般當事人需要對社群有很深的理解,豐富的論述基礎及面對公眾時的演說能力及感染力。若說話含糊,邏輯及思路不清,很容易變成為群體內外的攻擊對象。
  6. 被出櫃:意思是在當事人未有準備下,由其他人公開了TA的身份。

 

香港跨性別法律權益及倡導時間軸

* 由於資料不全,以下時間軸只顯示我們暫時能夠搜集到的內容

  1. 1985年香港進行首宗變性手術。
  2. 1986年瑪麗醫院成立性別認同小組,由吳敏倫帶領向全港欲接受性別重建手術的人士提供一站式評估服務。成員包括臨床心理學家、精神科醫生、內分泌科醫生、婦科醫生、泌尿科醫生、心理衛生社會工作者、遺傳學醫生、矯形外科醫生及律師等。
  3. 1988年袁維昌醫生開始在香港提供性別重置手術。
  4. 1998年博益出版由葉家明及李佩恩著作的《變性邊緣人》。
  5. 2000年寬頻上網逐漸普及,易裝者(crossdresser)群體開始在網上聚集起來。
  6. 2000年前後有幾位於香港接受變性手術的人士,由醫生穿針引線下,組成了聯絡小組(TEAM的前身)。
  7. 2002年首個具規模的易裝者論壇 「hkcdfamily」出現。
  8. 2003年6月電台節目主持人洪朝豐推出新書《繾綣男女》,當中訪問了十位分別有變性慾、已經變性及喜歡穿女性服飾的變裝男性。
  9. 2003年群體內開始使用Transgender「跨性別」這個名詞,當時有部份變性欲者會以跨性別來與易裝者區分。
  10. 2003年跨性別群體及學者成功向入境處爭取刪除身份證明文件上更改性別的記號。
  11. 2004年變性人的聯繫小組,註冊成為非牟利團體「跨性別平等與接納行動」 Transgender Equality and Acceptance Movement (TEAM)。
  12. 2004年在群體開始討論就變性人婚權向政府提出司法覆核,但一直未能覓得訴訟人。
  13. 2005年隨著吳敏倫醫生退休,當時唯一提供性別重建手術評估的瑪麗醫院性診所宣布結束服務。
  14. 2008年「跨性別資源中心」Transgender Resource Center (TGR) 成立。
  15. 2008年W小姐就變性人婚姻權入稟法院,向政府提出司法覆核。
  16. 2009年W小姐案件開審,藉著社會的廣泛討論,「跨性別資源中心」主席Joanne開始在媒體上大量曝光,以第一身講述跨性別女同志基督徒的故事。跨性別資源中心亦開始發展不同的群體服務、公眾教育及倡議性工作。
  17. 2010年W案件初審敗訴。
  18. 2011年W案件上訴敗訴。
  19. 2011年 跨性別資源中心出版「是非男女:本土跨性別閱讀手冊」。
  20. 2012年4月入境處收緊變性人更改身份證性別的要求,申請人必須已完成強制絕育及重建生殖器。
  21. 2013年5月W小姐案件於終審法院勝訴,法院於7月頒令,給予政府一年時限修改法例讓變性人享有更改性別後的婚姻權利,及促請政府制定全面的「性別承認法」,並以英國相關法律為參考藍本。
  22. 2013年6月政府成立「消除歧視性小眾諮詢小組」,當中成員包括Joanne、小曹、陳志全議員等各同志代表。
  23. 2013年「爭取性傾向歧視條例陣線」及「香港性少眾聯盟」 Hong Kong Queer Alliance (HKQA) 成立,針對歧視法加入性傾向及性別認同保障,跨性別資源中心為HKQA聯盟其中一員。
  24. 2013年跨性別資源中心、其他同志團體及關注的法律人權組織紛紛舉辦不同的研究會及進行遊說及倡議工作,準備面對政府提出的法例修訂。跨性別資源中心與同志團體取得共識,共同爭取變性人獲取新法律身份時免除手術的要求,及認同變性人婚姻為異性戀婚姻,並不是同志婚姻的踏板。
  25. 2014年1月平等機會委員會展開「有關立法禁止性傾向、性別認同及雙性人身份歧視的可行性研究」。
  26. 2014年2月政府向立法會提交婚姻修訂草案,並成立政府內部高層的「跨部門工作小組」,研究「性別承認法」的可行性。但政府提出的修訂草案只作低度諮詢,香港唯一提供變性手術的袁維昌醫生是專家意見的唯一提供者。草案內容粗疏,以致支持及反對變性人權利的人士及團體均強烈反對,引起香港社會對跨性別群體的的第二次廣泛討論及輿論報導。
  27. 2014年2月跨性別資源中心、粉紅同盟及大愛同盟組成策略陣線,於立法會婚姻修訂草案公聽會上表達意見,同場亦有不少反同人士、同志團體及其他三位跨性別人士發言。可惜當時其他跨性別人士提出之意見偏向支持變性手術是必要條件。及後歌手何韻詩與Joanne成為媒體報導焦點。當時最早在香港提供性別重建手術評估的吳敏倫醫生及施行手術的袁維昌醫生,就婚姻修訂亦在立法會內激辦,前者反對性別轉換必須施行手術的條件,後者堅持須要性器官重建及違反聯合國及國際組織一直倡議禁止的強制絕育手術。
  28. 2014年3月TGR及TEAM獲「世界跨性別健康專業協會」發信支持,向政府表明對跨性別人士權益的立場。
  29. 2014年3月政制及內地事務局委託政策二十一有限公司(顧問)進行一項「探討性小眾在香港有否遭受歧視」的研究。
  30. 2014年3月及10月Joanne及粉紅同盟成員到日內瓦聯合國向CEDAW委員以口頭陳述香港跨性別被壓迫的狀況。
  31. 2014年期間,跨性別資源中心與粉紅同盟聯合開始對游離派議員的遊說工作,及會見了提出婚姻修訂草案的保安局高層官員,希望能令政府不向建制派議員施壓通過草案。
  32. 2014年7月,由於政府未能在終審庭給予的一年限期內通過修訂草案,遂發公告確認所有與W小姐有相同情況的變性人,即已完成政府規定整套變性手術,無論是男變女或女變男,均可根據更改後的性別與異性在香港註冊結婚。
  33. 2014年10月立法會對婚姻修訂草案進行二讀,因大多數議員反對而未獲通過。
  34. 2015年 W小姐代表律師正準備為未做變性手術的女跨男Q先生進行司法覆核。
  35. 2015年 跨性別資源中心出版「是非男女:跨性別家長手冊」。
  36. 2015年12月31日政制及內地事務局發表了歷時2年多的工作報告,提出多項保障性少眾免受歧視的建議,唯未有對立法諮詢訂出確實時間表。
  37. 2016年1月26日平等機會委員會公布「立法禁止性傾向、性別認同及雙性人身份歧視的研究」的結果。

 

跨友(守護天使)

跨友的概念是由「跨性別資源中心」率先提倡,指跨性別人士的朋友或盟友。跨性別人士在成長中每每因為傳統的道德及倫理價值觀,受到來自於自身和外界很多不同大小的壓迫與歧視。漸漸形成對別人的不信任或防衛,不相信世界上會有人接受及明白TA們的認同,以至在生活上每個層面都可能會遇上不同程度的困難。跨友的概念是讓社會上更多人能夠明白跨性別的概念,明白這個群體中的特性及TA們每天在生活中的難處,作為TA們的支持者及朋友。在日常生活中讓其他人更明白這個群體,從而消除不必要的傷害及歧視,讓跨性別者能夠更有自信解開自我身份認同的迷思,選擇一條最合適自己的路。若身邊有跨性別者的朋友,作為跨友,最重要的是陪伴與聆聽,跨性別者身邊可能沒有太多能夠坦然相處的朋友,一位信任得過的跨友絕對是TA們身邊的守護天使!

無論你身邊有沒有跨性別或同性戀者,或者不知道有沒有這類人士,你都可以根據一些簡單原則,作為你日常的性/別敏感生活態度。過去你沒法知道身邊到底有沒有TA們的存在,更何況跨性別及同性戀很多時候根本就沒法從其外表或打扮分別出來。沒有可信任的環境,這一群人都未必願意公開其性/別身份;有沒有這樣的空間,就全靠你們。

 

「宜」

  • 耐心聆聽TA的故事,持開放態度準備挑戰自己的性別認知及虛心學習。 
  • 主動問當事人希望怎樣被稱呼。 
  • 說一些鼓勵的說話,如:「無論你是什麼性別,都是我的好朋友」、「公司要求的是一個人的工作能力,而非TA是什麼性別」… 
  • 與當事人溝通中,對社會上已公開同志身份的公眾人士多作正面評價。 
  • 將同志友善的刊物、標誌等放在當眼地方表示對性/別友善。
  • 友善地向身邊朋友宣揚反歧視訊息,多了解人權意識及同志平權的意義。改變是來自愛和分享,不需要強迫與責難。

 

「忌」

  • 不應判斷或討論別人的性/別身份,到底是不是同志。 
  • 若某人告訴你TA的性/別身份,請尊重TA對自己的理解,切勿批評或予以否定。 
  • 若你知道某人的性/別身份,除非得到當事人的允許,否則請不要隨便告訴他人,乃至是其家人。 
  • 若TA對自己性/別身份感覺模糊,切勿要求或幫助TA作選擇,性/別身份可以是流動的,對某些人來說是有可能隨時間、環境或情緒等條件而變動。性/別身份也可以是不肯定或不被定義。 
  • 不應經常或過份強調性別的二分及一般對性別的刻版印象,如「男人就要堅強」、「女人要似返個女人」等。 
  • 縱然想表達接納或友善態度,應盡量避免經常提及當事人的性/別身份,除非TA主動提及,應如看待一般人般看待TA。 
  • 如未清楚對方情況,應避免隨便對別人以性/別話題開玩笑,及留意別人反應,對性/別有適當的敏感度。 
  • 縱然社會一般認為加上如「先生」、「小姐」等稱謂是一種禮貌,但對待同志,應先了解當事人是否喜歡。 
  • 不要假設在戀愛或婚姻關係中的另一半一定是異性,對話如:「你女朋友做什麼工作」也可能會令場面尷尬。可多嘗試用「伴侶」、「Partner」、「另一半」來取代。 
  • 不應以為對方是同性,就可以有任何肢體接觸。相反地,不應以為對方認同的性別與你一樣,就可以沒有顧忌。 
  • 不應隨便問當事人以前的名字、或要求看以前的照片,除非你知道對方不會介意。有部份跨性別者對自己過去的性/別身份對非常介意,甚或厭惡,不小心提及可能會對TA造成傷害。 
  • 不應隨便詢問當事人的性別或性器官狀況,更不應評頭品足。 
  • 跨性別者對自身的打造與性別表達的理解因人而異,於性別之探索及轉變歷程亦不盡相同,不應預設認為跨性別者就應達到怎麼樣的一個標準,或應看起來要像另一個性別,也不應強迫其改變設合社會標準。

 

跨粉

「跨粉」就是跨性別粉絲(Fan)的意思,就是對跨性別者有傾慕,或是會愛上TA們的人。任何人在情感或性的吸引上,對跨性別者、或性別表達模糊的人,有持續的情感聯繫,比如莫明的欣賞、愛慕、迷戀或衝動等,都可視為跨粉。此等情感狀況可以是比較平淡的,又或是有強烈吸引的。跨粉當中有定義自己為異性戀或同性戀,但也有不少為雙性戀或泛性戀。

跨粉確確實實存在著我們身邊,只因為過往跨性別群體處於比較隱藏的狀態,想愛及追尋TA們變成了不可能的任務。看不到跨性別人士的存在,也讓跨粉潛藏的愛慾沒法被揭示出來。其實,在西方社會裡有類似的身份定義,如Trans Admirer、Trans Chaser、Tranny Chaser及Trans Fan等。但這一類定義都非常狹隘,指的是認同為異性戀的男性,沉迷戀慕稱為Shemale或Ladyboy的跨性別者,亦即仍保持陽具功能性,但外貌包括胸脯都非常女性化的跨性別人士,香港一般稱之為人妖。到現時為止還未有比較正面的中文翻譯,但近年於中港台地區,有較為活躍的這類性工作者,會正面地自稱為人妖。一般於跨性別社群內,較不喜歡將這類身份定義為同類,因其不希望別人會將色情、性工作、及帶有陽具等的標籤跟自己的身份拉上關系。

跨粉這個身份是由本機構主席梁詠恩、深圳夕顏文化傳播中心的小林、及台灣中國文化大學大眾傳播學系副教授林純德先生於2015年4月提出的一個全新概念,希望能夠提倡一個更正面及兼容的定義,在跨性別這個非二元的性/別身份越來越被看見的同時,令全人類在情慾探索的路途上,開拓一個更寬闊的空間,讓愛與被愛的個體在茫茫人海中能夠相遇。

 

跨粉的論述文章可於本機構網站上下載:

 

遇到歧視時的應對方法

無論在公共場合,或者是私人空間,當遇見陌生或認識的人士被歧視或欺凌時,都應該予以協助,特別是因為性傾向及性別認同上被侮辱,TA們更需要別人的幫忙。以下是一些值得注意的地方及建議,給大家參考:

  • 除非在緊急或危險狀況下,並不需要惡言相向,也不必跟歧視者理論。如有需要,可喝令對方停止,再報警求助。但要小心當事人會否介意警方介入,甚至有否媒體到場,令當事人的身份曝光。
  • 一般情況下,可走到雙方中間,然後以肯定及友善的態度告訴歧視者不應這樣做及立刻停止其行為。
  • 因當事人的身份,通常都不希望將事情鬧大,所以我們務求讓歧視者盡快離去,然後才慰問當事人,及看看有沒有其他需要。
  • 如歧視者與當事人是認識或有工作等的關係,應多給予關懷及支持,有需要可轉介至本中心或其他機構跟進協助。
  • 如是在公共場合遇上陌生的當事人,我們並不建議您與TA交換通訊資料,除非您是社工或輔導人員,或者您對當事人有一定的了解及信任。
  • 行事時要顧及自己和TA人的人身安全,先觀察當時環境有沒有其他途人能夠協助,歧視者的態度、人數、情緒、力量等的客觀條件,評估過後才作出適當行動。
  • 如遇歧視者比較凶惡,可裝作附近途人是認識的,或詢問其他人歧視者的行為對不對,或叫旁邊的人代為報警。
  • 行事前可先開手機錄影模式,記錄現場情況以備不時之需。如忘記先開錄影,也可裝說已經錄影,以作阻嚇之用。如有一人以上,應邀朋友錄影,然後自己上前處理,錄影者可離遠一點點,但也要讓歧視者知道有人作記錄,令對方知難而退。

 

以下是一些給大家參考的說話,主要是向著歧視者說的:

  • 「請問發生左咩事呢?」
  • 「我唔知道你地係咪識既,不過我覺得你以佢既XXX黎當眾侮辱佢係唔啱既!呢D係佢既個人取向,並唔影響你架!」
  • 「我係異性戀既,不過我並唔認同你既做法,請你即刻停止!」
  • 「我唔識佢,但係請您唔好再侮辱佢,每個人都有尊嚴既,佢既取向唔應該比您欺侮!」
  • 「唔該即刻停止,如果唔係我會報警!」

 

向著當事人說:

  • 「洗唔洗幫您報警呀?」
  • 「唔需要理佢,我地走…」
  • 「發生咩事呀?班朋友等緊您呀!我地走啦!」

 

若當時是在店舖或服務使用上,情況又不至於太惡劣,只是有點麻煩或態度不好等的對待,又或者當事人被質疑是男是女時,可以這樣協助:

  • 「您見佢咁梗係女/男啦!重要問?」
  • 「買野啫,男同女都係咁買架啦!快D做生意啦!」
  • 「有錢比您賺都要問咁多野?」
  • 「佢要果件我都想試喎,可唔可以攞埋比我呀?」
  • 「(對當事人講)小姐/先生(以TA的性別表達為準)您著得幾好睇喎!(對服務者講)您話係唔係呀?」

 

以上的方法,是讓店舖或商店的經營者看到,其他人都不覺得有問題,而將事情淡化。這樣通常可以化解尷尬情況,亦沒有必要證實當事人是否跨性別或同性戀者,當TA或自己離去時,亦毋須多加解釋,微笑一下便可以了!

 

跨性別者去洗手間的問題

跨性別者不論有否完成性別重置手術,有個別都會部份時候或全時間以相反的性別生活,上洗手間都是TA們必須處理及面對的困難。部份外表已經非常自信及沒有人能夠分別出來的跨性別者,雖然有可能仍未更換身份證上的性別,但一般都沒有太大問題。但一些可能是初作生活體驗、未進入賀爾蒙療程、未有很大自信等的TA會在洗手間問題上遇上難題。須知真實生活體驗對道跨性別者來說都是必須的、難得的過程。TA們以相反性別表達時,都過著平常人一般的生活,吃、喝、如廁都是必須的。當TA們以其認同性別生活時,應該以當時的性別去選擇合適性別的洗手間設施。反過來,如果TA們以相反性別表達時,卻以原來的性別如廁,問題必然更大,也會引來其他設施使用者不必要的恐慌。

當然,我們明白到女性會有所擔心,但我們真正要擔心的,應該是有沒有人在洗手間內作非法或危害TA人的行為,而並非到底是不是一位似乎是男性的人進入女洗手間。所以當我們遇到有關情況時,需觀察那人有否不軌企圖,還是只是簡單的使用洗手間,如是後者,便不用大驚小怪,報警或通知管理員。其實,有很多跨性別者外出時,都會盡量忍耐,少喝水,又或者找有殘疾人士洗手間的地方活動,避免影響其他人或遇上問題。

跨性別資源中心一直倡議設立更多無性別洗手間設施,不單適合不同人士使用,如如殘疾人士、帶小朋友的父母、性別氣質比較模糊的使用者,同時舒緩男女廁格比例失衡的問題,更可以增加殘疾人士洗手間的使用率。有女士會擔心安全及衛生問題,事實上人流比較多及有男性可以出入的洗手間,必然比女廁安全。而衛生問題並非只源於男性使用,我們應該從教育及設施設計方面下功夫,讓更多人能夠受惠。現時在不少國家,包括中國大陸、歐美、日本等地,已在不同私人及公共空間實踐無性別洗手間達二十多年以上,特別是在院校方面,而本地亦有某些場所及餐廳設有此類洗手間。我們的建議並非全面取替男、女廁,或強迫改建現時設施,只希望社會能夠多作討論,以及在新的建築裡考慮及實踐這個理念。

 

願景與責任

我們的願景,並不是要社會上每一個人都必然接受跨性別或是同性戀。社會需要接受的,是每一個人的不一樣!每一個人都可以以自己最真實的一面去展示與表達,不同的個性、特質、樣貌、體態、愛好、取態、信仰、性傾向及性別認同,造就了一個多元而美麗的世界。世界從來都不是單一的,人類也從來不是!多樣化帶來不一樣的啟示與進步,最重要的原則是互相看見、接受彼此的差異、尊重和關愛!

人類的責任並非單單做到以上的原則,而是要在生活裡實踐一個更和諧公義的世界。願宣揚愛與包容,幫助弱勢群體發聲,追尋別人的公義,以自己的行為與生命作見證,都能成為我們每天的使命!

將來,我們亦希望反歧視法及性別承認法能夠起到更大的教育及保障作用,讓每一個人在不同範疇下,也能夠自由地在不影響別人下活出自己真的一面。

 

不同領域狀況

校園

在校園裡,一般會遇到對跨性別及同性戀者的歧視與欺凌,會有以下層次:

  • 同學之間
  • 老師對學生
  • 學生對老師
  • 家長對老師
  • 學校社工對學生
  • 學校信仰對學生/老師
  • 學校規則對學生/老師

 

被歧視的對象以學生為主,偶爾亦有老師遭受歧視。先說同學之間的歧視與欺凌,一般學校也會偶然出現同學之間的欺凌情況,男校比較嚴重。有些時候同學只是調皮、貪玩,或是要表現自己的男子氣概而欺負比較軟弱的男同學。至於女校,似乎大家都習慣女同學之間表現得比較親暱,甚至有同性性傾向。而性別表達上較為中性或男性化的女同學反而大受歡迎,成為眾同學的偶像,所以歧視情況不常見,反而需要留意感情及學業問題。

同學和老師都應該正面教育同學關於歧視(Discrimination)、尊重(Respect)、性傾向(Sexual Orientation)、性別認同(Gender Identity)與及性別表達(Gender Expression)的原則,以下會以DRSOGIE簡稱這幾個概念。學校裡的老師及同學,作為跨性別同盟的角色更為重要。當同學看到別的同學作出欺凌行為,可以當面友善地指出這類行為並非強者或大丈夫所為,邀請其他同學與其成為好朋友,讓TA得到保護。也可告訴適合的老師或社工處理。有些時候老師會擔心學校的取態及同學的感受而盡量不提SOGIE。其實愈不提,同學就愈不可能理解不可以歧視或以這個話題開玩笑的原因。所以我們應該小心指出性別氣質與性傾向及性別認同並不完全對等,同學亦需尊重每個人的生活方式及傾向,盡量避免直接指出同學是什麼身份,也要讓校方明白這並非鼓吹跨性別或同性戀,而是教育同學反歧視與欺凌行為。若個別學校社工有歧視或不接納情況,應提醒TA應遵守社工的專業操守,若不合適應將同學轉介至適當的社工跟進。

我們在不同的情況下,可以用很多方法將焦點轉到DRSOGIE上,但並不建議以說謊來表達別人或自己的清白。當然這是每一個人的自由選擇,我們需要考慮的,是長久在這些擔驚受怕的壓力底下,會影響工作表現及個人情緒。不如想辦法改善環境,及讓所有人都活得更加快樂,在有限制的情況下,找尋自己的一片空間與出路。

若老師被學生取笑,可以大方地以這個作為對DRSOGIE概念的教育機會,而不需刻意說出TA或是自己的性/別身份。若學生能夠理解及明白老師的教導,TA回家後便會成為老師的教育使者,不需要直接由自己處理家長的歧視問題,除非TA向校方投訴。

若學校於信仰上、校規上、或校長處理上出現問題,應先嘗試溝通,及在校內物色支持的力量,與校方交涉。因為一開始就將校方問題放上檯面,很難有商討及讓步的空間。我們的目標是透過溝通讓其他人能夠了解及明白DRSOGIE,最終令問題有所改善。衝突與對抗未必是最好的方法,但溝通過後仍未能讓對方改變,就可能要尋求其他幫助或法律意見,如平等機會委員會的介入,甚至訴諸法庭。在討論時,亦應提醒大家,除任教宗教科目,老師的性傾向及性別認同與教學質素無關,也不會影響學生的性取向。但歧視會對學生做成反面的教導,影響深遠。

總而言之,老師在學校不單止是傳授課本知識,讓同學、家長及學校明白DRSOGIE也是必不可少的責任。

 

教會/宗教

以香港的經驗,一般佛教對性傾向或性別認同方面沒有太大的爭議,慾望才是需要關注的問題。這本手冊不會深入探究和討論各宗教反對或不反對跨性別及同性戀的理由及立場。我們主要希望帶出在基督教及天主教這兩個比較爭議的區域,相方怎樣比較容易面對,及尋求出路。

很多人先入為主,以為基督教和天主教都反對跨性別及同性戀,在教義上是沒有爭論餘地的。但事實上我們需要先從幾個較為客觀的方向,了解這兩個宗教在面對同志議題上的不同層次,才能夠繼續討論。我們這裡並非嘗試討論同志在聖經裡是不是罪這個問題,只是嘗試鋪陳及指出一些仍有討論空間的基礎。

  • 在整本新舊約聖經裡,從來沒有直接評論跨性別及同性戀是罪,或指出這不是神所喜悅的。因為當時社會文化上根本沒有這個概念,聖經所指的是某些異教儀式中的男男性行為。在這裡我們先作這樣的理解,因為聖經的詮釋牽涉翻譯、釋經、神學及當今處境等的複雜問題,我們暫且不在此處理。
  • 若細心閱讀一些廣為人知反對同性戀的聖經故事,不難發現經文有很大程度的翻譯及釋經空間,會出現完全不一樣的理解,與教會一般的說法可能有所出入。
  • 只有很少聖經經文有涉及跨性別的狀況,大概只有這句比較有關連:「婦女不可穿戴男子所穿戴的、男子也不可穿婦女的衣服、因為這樣行都是耶和華你神所憎惡的。」
  • 在不同的遠古文化中,都有記載同性性行為的文獻或圖像等的資料,也沒有牽涉什麼與罪或違反道德倫理等的證據。
  • 若說跨性別及同性戀是罪的一種,其實人類幾乎每天都會犯上大大小小不同的罪,這也是聖經所說「世人都犯了罪,虧缺了神的榮耀」的意思。教會需要考慮是否將同志議題過份放大了?
  • 現任天主教教宗方濟各曾多次提及同性戀問題,他曾說:「擁有同性戀傾向並不是問題,同性戀者不應該邊緣化」,還強調:「如果有人是同性戀,他信仰上帝且心地良善,我怎麼能論斷他呢?」。雖然天主教仍然似乎在教義上反對同性戀,但教宗方濟各堅持教會是應該接納TA們的。
  • 由於基督教沒有如天主教般的從上而下的教義,我們很難說基督教就是反同的。而且近年較多教會改變了立場,說TA們反對同性性行為,但接納同性戀者,因為這也許是與生俱來的。但這說法非常牽強,如是天生(上帝所賜予的),那怎會禁止呢?也有人說那是罪的後果,但如約翰福音9章所記載的,耶穌也當面否定了門徒對罪的後果的理解。
  • 實際上,現在西方教會已有比較多的神職人員認為跨性別及同性戀並不是罪,在香港也越來越多有如此的理解。但教會的組成及意見不一,很多時教會都很難作出一個明確立場支持同志,也擔心公開支持會帶來很大的爭議與攻擊。

 

以上的資料不是希望給讀者證明什麼,只是希望大家不必先假設同志就是罪大惡極、天理不容,教會絕對不容許同志存在。事實上,同志無處不在,只是因為社會未有對TA們歧視的保障,令絕大部份的同志隱藏其身份,不讓人知道。據多個統計指出,同志在比較發達的國家中佔大概十分之一的人口。諸如英國及美國的教會中,有說幾乎每一個基督徒,最少都會認識一位同志朋友,以至當地教會,不能夠迴避同志議題。但很可惜,香港很多教會,都會認為自己教會裡沒有同志,或是有大型教會,強調自己接納同志,但會勸喻TA們不要告訴其他人,在教會內裝成是一般人就可以。

我們希望,就算教會認同同志是罪,也應以基督的心為心,接納同志留在教會中,及教導信徒怎樣與TA們相處,並防止信徒歧視與壓迫TA們。以下是我們建議的原則,希望教會留意及接納:

  • 未經當事人同意,不應向其他人透露其同志身份,特別是在公開禱告中。教牧同工也需特別注意,避免在公開場合當眾說教會有同志存在,除非TA本人要求或不介意。
  • 在講道時盡量避免強烈責備跨性別或同性戀。
  • 避免強迫當事人改變其性傾向或性別認同,或經常提醒上帝能夠改變其這方面的傾向。我們相信,若一個人愛主,主會預備最好的路給TA。改變與否是上帝的工作,我們的工作只應該是牧養及與TA同行,而不是強加己見。
  • 不應因為TA的傾向而停止或不給予TA事奉的機會,也不應不讓TA參與教會任何禮儀,如聖餐及崇拜等。
  • 稱呼跨性別信徒時,就算是其他人不知道其身份,都應盡量避免用弟兄/姊妹,可以自然地稱呼TA的中文或英文名字,讓TA在教會裡能夠容易適應。
  • 當對同志信徒談及感情問題時應小心,如真的需要提到,盡量避免用「男朋友」或「女朋友」,可用「partner」、「另一半」等較為中性的字眼代替,或以中性的問題去發問,如「最近有沒有新戀情」等。
  • 如有信徒覺得需要為當事人禱告,建議盡量以私禱進行。就算是在小組或團契中集體禱告,若當事人知道,都會做成對TA很大的不安與壓力。
  • 教會應盡量聆聽TA們的心聲,少作評論及意見,讓TA們的難處成為教會學習的功課。TA們能夠來到這一間教會,也願意留下,必然有上帝的心意。雖然香港有多間接納同志的教會,也有專門為同志設立的,但若TA們願意留下來,實在不應主動建議TA轉去其他教會,除非TA們在教會內受到嚴重的攻擊與傷害,到了教會已沒有能力處理的地步。(接納同志的教會資料記載在本手冊後的章節)。

 

如教會在處理同志信徒上有疑問,可聯絡「彩虹之約」,以下是TA們的網站:

 

彩虹約章 — 共建同志友善教會

http://www.rainbowcovenant.com.hk/

 

工作場所

一般同志均會很小心處理與同事之間的關係,不論是工作期間還是公餘時間,絕少公開談及個人的性/別身份。究其原因,是憂慮個人性/別身份影響在工作上的晉升機會、與上司及同事的關係。即使有個別同事或公司接納同志,TA們都未必願意冒險公開。有部份人選擇與同事保持距離,避免談及敏感話題;有部份會編故事,讓其性/別身份不被同事及上司發現。這樣的環境壓力令當事人需要經常提高警覺、無法專注於工作上、亦難以與同事建立良好的工作關係及對公司沒有歸屬感。最終令其難以在工作上發揮所長,投入及TA熱愛的事業。

不同的研究及實證指出,於企業內營造同志友善的工作環境,不單有效增加同志員工的工作效率及投入感,TA們更願意在企業內作長遠發展,從而減低流失率而讓公司得益。員工與同志和諧相處,不單讓員工明白及尊重多元文化,更可實踐企業責任,大幅提升公司的整體效益。

 

本港的社商賢匯 (Community Business) 在這方面有很多研究及實踐經驗,與本地國際企業有相當多的合作。以下是社商賢匯出版的「建立同志友善工作空間」手冊:

http://www.communitybusiness.org/images/cb/publications/2010/lgbt.pdf

 

僱主可由最簡易的一步開始,了解由政制及內地事務局制訂給僱主簽署的僱傭實務守則。守則提及12項非常簡單的原則,主要是在招聘及晉升機會上給予平等對待,以及在企業內建立申訴機制。守則內容不會對僱主帶來額外負擔,亦沒有法律的約束力;但對僱員是一個非常重要的態度,反映僱主致力提供同志友善的環境,讓同志員工安心在公司發展所長。

 

消除性傾向歧視僱傭實務守則

http://www.cmab.gov.hk/tc/issues/code_of_practice.htm

 

此外,僱主可進一步嘗試引入以下的建議事項。由於不同商業、工作間及員工間的關係不盡相同,跨性別或同志員工的情況及需要也不相同,僱主應多與相關同事及員工溝通,務求帶出公司立場及讓所有人明白尊重及包容的重要性,而不是強迫某部份員工接受或認同跨性別或同性戀的傾向與行為。

給僱主及員工的建議:

  • 職場同志共融的對像應包括僱主、管理層、僱員、外判公司、服務提供、企業責任及企業方針等不同面向。
  • 於辦公室內張貼同志友善或消除歧視性傾向及性別認同的海報,於當眼地方放置如本手冊等資料供閱覽及索取,如有需要可與本機構聯絡。
  • 為員工及人力資源部開辦培訓講座,本機構可免費提供。
  • 中小型企業的人力資源部應肩負起企業內同志共融的責任。面對著新入職的僱員,無論其性/別身份,都應說明企業對同志的共融原則,讓員工一開始已充分了解公司的立場及態度。及後無論是同志或其他同事遇上問題,人力資源部應盡早介入,令事件不會造成對員工之間的傷害。部門亦應替同志員工提供支援,商討最合適的對策。我們不主張以強硬手段對待歧視同志的員工,較合適的做法是讓該員工明白尊重及不應歧視的原則,讓各人在工作上有平等的機會。如有需要,可考慮以暫時性的調職安排,安撫被歧視的對象。但最終亦不應當作事情沒有發生,宜加強企業內的培訓及發放通告讓員工明白公司對同志共融的態度及原則。
  • 於應徵表格上加入性別友善的選項或句子,如性別選項為「男/女/其他」、明列公司執行「消除性傾向歧視僱傭實務守則」等。
  • 於公司內成立或鼓勵員工自發成立同志共融小組,組織社交活動或分享講座等。需留意「共融小組」並非只供跨性別或同志參與,一般員工的參與更為重要。不然就會變成被迫出櫃(Come Out)的活動。
  • 於公司內部制定簡單易明的同志共融守則或指引,也可考慮提供給已在外地註冊的同性伴侶享有公司提供與僱員異性伴侶同等的福利。
  • 若是有跨性別的同事,應仔細考慮各項安排。因跨性別的狀況較複雜,非手術、手術前及手術後的跨性別員工也有不同的需要及應對措施,同時需要小心照顧當事人及其他同事的心理狀況,務求兼顧各方的感受。就跨性別員工在工作間內的協調上,以洗手間/更衣室的使用最為敏感,其次是穿著/制服問題,另外也需注意對該員工在稱謂上的轉變。跨性別員工在手術前、後,其性別轉換過程或多或少會為其他同事帶來疑惑及焦慮。跨性別員工期望同事即時認同其另一個性別,及可以使用另一個性別的洗手間/更衣室設施。但這些轉變也可能導致個別員工的憂慮及不滿。有公司會安排一個獨立的洗手間/更衣室給當事人使用,但如此一來,亦會容易令當事人有被排斥的感覺。僱主應多方協調,讓各員工都能夠明白其他人的處境,找出最適當的處理方案。

以上的資訊只是我們的部份經驗,如有任何需要,請聯絡本機構以提供協助。

 

家人/朋友

請先參閱「是非男女」第二冊之「跨性別家長手冊」關於父母及家長與跨性別子女的關係。跨性別人士的家人或朋友首先要做的是聆聽。當我們知道自己心愛及著緊的人是同志,都會擔心TA們的將來會否遇到困難,有時甚至十分希望TA能夠改變,或很焦急地提供不同的治療方法及支援資訊。其實,很多時當TA們終於鼓起勇氣向家人或朋友出櫃時,TA自己可能已尋索了好一段時間,並對自身的性/別身份有一定的肯定,才會嘗試向別人坦白。所以此時,應該盡量讓TA表達所思所想,讓TA在這個勇敢的行為之後,得到TA期望的關懷。除非TA年紀太細,思想仍未成熟,沒有獨立能力,家人或朋友應讓TA們說出TA們的要求,才去幫忙。

作為TA的家人/朋友(盟友),以下是我們的小小忠告:

  • 聆聽TA的故事時,可於重要的細節提問,但不應急於表達自己對那些概念的不理解,不應不斷提出問題或質疑TA的想法。聆聽後可記下重要的關鍵詞,再自行上網查找資訊,待下次有機會時向TA了解更多,切記不要不停追問細節及問題。預留充裕時間讓TA回答每一個問題,因為TA跟家人/朋友出櫃的壓力非常之大,不要嚇怕TA而失去將來溝通的機會。
  • TA通常會選擇與比較容易接納TA的家人或朋友作出櫃對象,TA希望通過您的協助,讓其他比較抗拒TA身份的家人/朋友比較容易接受。您可以主動提出這個想法並向TA評估實際情況,或者找機會向TA的目標人物試探,然後再跟TA商量出櫃的可行性。
  • 作好隨時為TA護航的準備。當TA受到別人質疑但仍未準備出櫃時,請助TA解圍,如拉開話題等。有需要時請站在TA的一方,為TA辯護。
  • 嘗試跟TA或邀請TA出席一些相關的研討會或同志友善活動,給TA帶來支持,及主動了解TA的世界。
  • 不要假設其他人不會接受TA的性/別身份,這樣的假設會打擊TA的自信。而且,當您都不相信其他人會接納,反映出您也未完全接納TA。
  • 接納TA的重點是相信TA的個人決定,而並非必要認同某套價值觀。愛TA和關懷TA,讓TA無論作了什麼決定,都活得快樂和有自信,當TA跌倒或難過時,扶TA一把!

 

服務行業

服務業從業員對待同志其實相對簡單,重點是不會因為顧客的性傾向、性別認同及表達而提供差別服務,甚至拒絕提供服務。在絕大部份情況下,同志顧客不需要向服務提供者公開其性/別身份。反之,如果當事人這樣做,必定有其需要,可能是服務當中的一些細節不符合當事人的需要或標準,才會主動公開其性/別身份。

服務業僱主應向員工提供培訓,讓所有員工提供專業的服務,並清楚知道不可有任何歧視行為,包括對不同種族及殘疾人士。據我們了解,一般連鎖式服務對同志比較友善,甚至曾聽說男性外表的朋友選購衣服或鞋時要求試穿也很順利。但小商戶有時候仍然會因宗教或個人取向,對同志有誤解和歧視。

過去曾發生一些爭議性的個案,如有已完成手術的男跨女的跨性別人士加入私人會所時,被禁止使用女性更衣室。另一個經常被引述的外國例子是一對同性戀人要求蛋糕店訂製有兩個男性公仔的結婚蛋糕,店主因其信仰而拒絕提供服務。這類比較特殊的例子,經常成為消除歧視性少眾立法的爭議題目。這本手冊目的並非關於立法,我們不會在此詳細討論。我們多次說明並非要求別人完全認同跨性別或同性戀,而是希望大眾尊重及理解各人的不同取向,並讓所有人享受基本的生活質素及免受歧視。

作為同志友善的服務提供者,可以進一步的支持消除歧視及開拓市場,增強自己的營商競爭力。以下是本機構的一些建議:

  • 於提供服務的印刷刊物上,加入同志友善的內容。如「接納多元」、「任何膚色、種族、性傾向、性別認同及表達…」、「愛無分性/別…」等等,也可加入六色彩虹的圖像元素。
  • 於媒體宣傳上,強調性別的多樣性及接納包容等訊息。
  • 提供場地、支援給同志機構,或合辦活動與講座。
  • 參與成為不同宣揚同志平等及關懷活動的贊助商。
  • 於同志雜誌、媒體、網站上刊登廣告。

 

跨性別同行計劃

「跨性別同行計劃」是本中心於2015年,得到政府資助推行的其中一個跨性別同盟項目。計劃的目的是通過「跨友TRANS BUDDY」組隊與跨性別朋友相處,進入TA們的日常生活裡,了解跨性別人士在不同處境所遇到的困難與期望,整個活動為一項現實生活中的性別教育。此計劃也期望能讓跨性別朋友在社交中建立更高的自我認同及價值,為實現人生計劃打下良好基礎,並培植跨友隊長成為跨性別大使,帶領此計劃長遠發展,並在社會上推動性別多元教育。

計劃為期一年,在這一年時間裡,每隊會與兩位跨性別朋友有10個月的相處時間,定期見面,期望能在輕鬆愉快的時光中建立彼此關系、認識及成長。主辦單位會對每隊報名的「跨友」隊伍進行面試甄選。活動顧問會為入選的「跨友」隊伍與參與的跨性別朋友講解活動細節和注意事項。

每隊參與隊伍需由8位「跨友」組成,每組隊伍需挑選一位跨友成為隊長作召集。主辦單位會進行配對安排配對,安排2位跨性別人士參與其中。於每次活動,隊長需聯絡所有活動參加者,商討及安排活動的時間及細節,並提醒各人積極參與及互相尊重。

活動可以是戶外或戶內,任何消閒、運動、文化、康樂及談天說地皆可,只要注重各人安全就可以。活動主題可以是:戶外遠足、攝影、燒烤、聚餐、觀影、騎行、滑冰、逛街購物等。我們也盡量鼓勵大家參與跨性別資源中心的每月聚會,關於跨性別資源中心的每月聚會活動主題,請參照跨性別資源中心的郵件通知。

活動過程中,跨性別朋友和「跨友」 可以拍攝生活照片,紀錄在跨性別資源中心提供的生活手冊中,但如果未得任何組員同意,不可擅自於網絡上公開。活動中期跨性別資源中心將為所有隊伍舉行聯歡會,界時各隊員將有機會向其他隊伍分享活動感受,並與顧問進行交流。

整個項目完結前,隊伍會以匯報形式進行活動總結和交流(其中包括活動感想和活動照片),由隊員提交對整個活動參與的個人感受。部份表現優秀隊員,可被甄選參與進深培訓營,以考取作為「跨性別大使」及「Trans Buddy Program 隊長」,作為下一屆計劃的協作顧問。

如對上述計劃有興趣,或希望成為跨性別資源中心義工,請與本機構聯絡查詢。

 

結語

近年同志運動及跨性別運動在社會上的能見度愈來愈高,同時引起了部份人對運動的恐懼,也出現比較激烈的對抗與爭論。社會運動不一定是將某部份人的利益、價值觀等轉移到另一些人身上,也不一定要分敵我陣營。有一些社會運動可以讓所有人受惠及活得更好!

跨性別運動在香港只發展了短短數年,主要有三大方向。一是讓社會大眾認識及了解這個群體及其狀況,藉以消除歧視;二是爭取跨性別人士在醫療及其他社會福利上的支援配套;三是爭取法律上的承認及保障,亦即倡議政府就性傾向、性別認同及性別表達的反歧視條例立法,及爭取性別承認法立法。

事實上,政制及內地事務局及平等機會委員分別於2015年底及2016年1月公布的兩份報告均指出立法保障同志免受歧視的急切性,及社會上大部份人都偏向支持立法,保障同志得到平等對待。但社會上常有聲音指大部份市民反對就性傾向歧視條例立法及不應強迫別人接納同志。其實立法是保障社會上的所有人,消除對任何人的仇恨和歧視;立法亦沒有要求所有人接納同志甚至覺得同志是美好的。消除歧視的宗旨是讓社會上有不同的人及不一樣的聲音,仍然能夠互相尊重,讓每個人都能夠平等地享受努力所帶來的成果,並活出自己喜愛的一面。

仇恨的聲音永遠是最大的吶喊,愛與包容卻如細水長流,滋潤人心。社會上需要被愛的人有很多,讓我們放下手機,放眼四方。你會發現無論在大街上、地鐵車廂內、大雨下、繁鬧中,都有一些可以去做的事情,讓世界變得更加美好!

 

梁詠恩 Joanne Leung

跨性別資源中心創辦人兼主席

 

世界上每一個人

都是……

另一個人的天使

 

作者:梁詠恩 Joanne Leung

校對:許二毛

隊友:池清麗 Chi Jamie Anne 

   曹綺雯 Charissa Chao Yee Man 

 

作者簡介

Joanne出生於香港,原生性別為男,經歷了四十多年的身份掙扎,終於在2009年於香港進行了性別轉換手術,正式將所有身份證明文件更改為女性,但仍堅持接納自己的跨性別身份及愛女性的情慾,一直積極參與同志及跨性別的公眾教育及政策倡議,為香港及國內最活躍的其中一位同志運動推動者。2008年成立跨性別資源中心並任主席至今,粉紅同盟副主席、婦女基督徒協會執行委員、華人拉拉聯盟顧問及香港愛滋病顧問局核下之愛滋病社區論壇成員。 

Joanne於2015年加入民主黨並開始積極參與政治,以民主黨性別平權委員會委員於黨內外推動性別平權,並於2015年年底表達有意參與立法會選舉,成為香港首位公開跨性別政治人物。

 

 

The Book of Transgender in Hong Kong

 

Preface

This is a handbook consolidated and translated from three of our Chinese booklets Gossip Boys & Girls series. The first booklet was published in 2012 as we found easy understanding information for Chinese readers was absent. Although there was quite a lot of information in English from western countries, we cannot just copy it from different contexts and cultures as the transgender community is so diverse all over the world. Another reason why we need to create our own book is that publications available are either produced by Transgender people, telling the outside world what people should do, or written by cisgender professionals or researchers.

 

Taking into consideration the general public’s perspective, Gossip Boys & Girls series were written in the language for the wider population. Gossip in Chinese is 是非. It also means Right and Wrong. Gender and sexuality of a person could always be the focus in gossips among people no matter you are LGBT people or not. What even worst is that transgender people are always judged by the others as “right or wrong”. Two of my best transgender friends were unable to bear the suppression and committed suicide one in 2004, followed by another one in 2008. Another gay friend of mine has committed suicide recently in Jan 2017. What caused them to make such a decision? Is it their fault being true to themselves? I hope this handbook laid out from the experience of a transgender person who has overcame those unspeakable difficulties in life will give you more insight about the transgender community in Hong Kong. 

 

The Basic Concept of Gender

Pronoun

To respect and embrace different gender identifications, we intend to use “singular they” throughout our booklet.

Singular they is the use in English of the pronoun they or its inflected or derivative forms, them, their, theirs, and themselves (or themself), as a gender-neutral singular pronoun. It typically occurs with an antecedent of indeterminate gender, as in sentences such as:

● "Somebody left their umbrella in the office. Would they please collect it?"

● "The patient should be told at the outset how much they will be required to pay."

● "But a journalist should not be forced to reveal their sources."

The singular they had emerged by the 14th century and is common in everyday spoken English, but its use has been the target of criticism since the late 19th century. Its use in formal English has increased with the trend toward gender-inclusive language.

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singular_they

 

Transgender Terms

There are quite some evolution on those terms used in the transgender community. For some reasons, more people started using Transman to replace FtM and Transwoman to replace MtF so as to address transgender individual in a more affirmative way naming only their desired gender identity but not the past history. Yet this may take time for cisgender people to get familiarized with the terms and we need to respect people who prefer different addressing.

 

We also used more “Trans” in recent years instead of Transgender person, Transman, and Transwoman, etc which is a more inclusive and non-binary term representing the diversity of the community in causal usages. But for this handbook, we intended to use more easy understanding terms for our readers who might not be familiar with this topic. More transgender terms can be found on Internet. We prefer to use different terms in different occasions for better understanding and mutual respect but not to focus only on our concern.

 

What is “Gender”?

Most people naturally think there are only male and female when we talk about gender. Yet have we ever thought about the implications of this seemingly incontestable binary definition? What is the correlation between gender and our daily life? Does gender give us an advantage or cause us trouble? 

 

Though “gender” and “sex” are actually the same word in Chinese, in fact the term “gender” carries different meanings and is seldom recognized by the Chinese culture. Sex refers to one’s biological and physiological characteristics, while gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. These gender characteristics evolution and construction are the result of cultures and traditions, not innate. Those daily life gender manifestations, such as one’s appearance or clothing, are not physiological sex. It is rather a demonstration of gender that most people learned from imitation. 

 

Broadly speaking, gender could be categorized into gender identity, roles and expression.  In most cases, sociological and psychological gender cannot be defined by sex alone but more by one’s functionality and characteristics. Gender is a blending of masculinity and femininity and could be easier to be understood  through the concept of Chinese philosophy yin and yang. 

 

In fact, biological sex is not dichotomous. There are male and female, as well as asexual and androgyny in biological world, all of these determinations depends on the living condition and reproductive requirements. No doubt reproduction is an important condition for species to be preserved, but we must understand that the diversity of species in the world. Reproduction is only one of the functions, and not every individual must undergo the same process.

 

What is Transgender?

Transgender (TG) people are those whose gender identity, or behavior does not correspond with their assigned sex at birth or falls outside of stereotypical gender norms. Those conditions can be expressed or presented via the recognition of their own gender, perception of their body, social identity, family roles, intimate relationships, temperament, appearance and clothing, etc. Nonetheless, there are still people falling into this group that do not consider themselves as transgender. We need to respect the identification of every individuals and never impose labels on anyone. 

 

What is Gender Identity?

Gender identity is the innermost psychological perception of one’s gender. The gender identity of most people seems to be consistent with their assigned sex at birth, while transgender people undergo an incongruous or conflicted situation. Gender identity can be male, female, both or neither. Non-binary gender diversity do exist and there are agender, androgyne, bigender, genderfluid, etc. Indeed, most people may not fully meet the socially constructed stereotypical gender norms in some of their behavioral characteristics. They just conceal those experiences as we are are forbidden or taught not to go beyond these boundaries when we grow up.

 

The Concept of Sexual Orientation

Sexual orientation refers to being romantically, sexually, emotionally, or spiritually attracted to people of a specific sex (or gender). People in the society often experience emotionally and/or sexually attracted to people who are the opposite sex. For them, the relationship between the same sex people can only be limited to friendship. People may hear more about heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual as one of the sexual orientation. Bisexual refers to a person who is emotionally, and/or sexually attracted to people of both the same and opposite sex. This definition is based on binary gender and some bisexual persons might experience attraction toward different genders. Another term people are less familiar with is pansexual, where it refers to a person who experiences sexual, romantic and/or spiritual attraction for people of all genders or that gender is not a matter. Meanwhile, there are also people experiencing little or no sexual attraction to other and/or lack of interest in sexual relationship or behavior, i.e. asexual. 

 

It is roughly estimated that 10% of the population is homosexual. However, we are unable to understand the population of people of different sexual orientation until society is inclusive enough for non-heterosexual people to feel secure to express their identity freely. 

 

Why SOGIE?

This is a short form of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression. The most recently usage is SOGIESC, adding Sex Characteristics at the end to represent the condition of Intersex status. When we talk about LGBT, we are talking about homosexual which is part of the sexual orientation and transgender which is also part of the gender identity. But for SOGIE, we are talking about the whole spectrum of sexual orientation, gender identity as well as gender expression without exclusion of anyone. For some topics like anti-discrimination, we should not only protect the rights of LGBT & I people and ignore the possibility that  straight and cisgender people will also suffer from discrimination in terms of their SOGIE status as well as Sex Characteristics.

 

Transgender

Transgender = Transsexual?

Not all transgender people wish or desire to alter their bodies through hormonal treatment or surgery to align with their gender identities. For some, crossdressing eases their inner struggle. Many factors such as environment, economic situation, and health status may determine how the individual wishes to live and express their gender identity. Therefore, it is hard to determine someone is a transsexual person or not. Transsexual is a person people who has strong and consistent desire to alter their own body to another sex. It’s not about their stage in transitioning or whether or not they have completed the sex reassignment surgery. There are post-op TS who has completed the SRS, pre-op TS who are in the transitioning process before the surgery and non-op TS who do not consider to have surgery at that particular moment.

 

Transgender vs Homosexual

Transgender is an understanding of the denial of one’s own body or gender, from the very own “self”. When we say someone is a transgender, we are dealing with the person’s gender identity, which should not be confused with that person’s sexual orientation.

 

When we talk about homosexuality, we are looking at a person’s sexual orientation determined by the gender who the person attracted to. Let us simplify the complex situation by eliminating transgender here and assuming there are only male and female. Homosexuals are attracted to people of the same sex while heterosexuals are attracted to the opposite.

 

Under general circumstances, homosexuals and heterosexuals only, excluding people who identifying as transgender, accept and affirm their bodies as well as gender identity. Some homosexuals like to be dressed as another gender but usually as a form of entertainment or gender expression. In most cases they do not feel anxious about their bodies and gender identity like transgender people. 

 

When it comes to transgender as the subject, it becomes more complicated to define whether the person is heterosexual or homosexual. Usually, it is based on their desired gender identity regardless of whether they have undergonesex reassignment surgery (SRS) or not. It is important to identify based on one’s personal perception instead of forcing someone to accept a certain sexual orientation or label. In the transgender community, there are heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual and other sexual orientations, but their proportion is still unknown. 

 

For transgender people, of course, their sexual orientation might have some implication on their own gender definition. However, in many cases, it affects more their attitude or decision to have SRS but not their gender identity. The complexity and close relationship between gender identity and sexual orientation has not only confused the public, but also created anxiety in many transgender people and made them hesitant about what course to follow. 

 

Beginning of the community

Transgender people have always been a hidden clan in society. Influenced by the West, society becomes more open and the Chinese tradition has become less restricted towards men’s roles and family lineage. In the 1970s and 1980s, young people became financially independent and autonomous, they can afford more time and space to contemplate and imagine about sex and gender. In 1990s, the Internet became more popular in Hong Kong and came the broadband era in 2000s. Some people who were anxious about their SOGIE status were able to search from a wealth of information on the Internet. They also found some local crossdressers and from all over the world. This encouraged them to explore and pursue their dream in life. The term transgender was not yet known by the community until later introduced by scholars and activists like Dr. Sam Winter who was the Associate Professor of the University of Hong Kong (HKU) for 12 years until 2013 working for transgender health and rights.

 

A group of experts led by Dr. Ng Man Lun in Hong Kong recognized the need for patients with transsexual desire. In consideration of that, they set up the first sex clinic in Queen Mary Hospital in 1979. This launched a new page on SRS in Hong Kong. Since then, news about transgender people was published in the media from time to time. Even so, transgender people were not been well accepted by society. They still encounter a lot of difficulties and anxieties in work and life. These resulted in the high degree of people who have undergone SRS to hide their identity or even commit suicide. It is still the case even today and in other countries as well. According to "Mental Health of Transgender People in Hong Kong", a survey released by Associate Professor of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Dr. Suen Yiu-tung and Transgender Resource Center in 2016, over 70%of transgender youth had contemplated suicide.

 

There are a few transgender people who tried to find a way out from self-repression of late years. Embracing their identity with a positive attitude, they bravely disclose it to the public and the media. In the case of W v Registrar of Marriages in 2010, the coverage of the incident sparked public discussion about the rights of transgender people. It also indirectly increased the visibility of transgender people in society. 

 

In fact, the transgender population should be larger than we know. However, the only way to raise the awareness and understanding of society and the government for it to allocate resources and support, is to increase transgender people’s visibility. In view of this, in recent years concern groups are committed to reveal the reality of this community to the public. 

 

The History and Present Situation of the Community

In the past, the transgender community cannot actually be regarded as a community. Most transgender individuals can only chose to have a double life, living in pain and struggles, leaving them no strength to seek out or contact other fellows. In 2002, several transgender people founded Hong Kong’s first online forum for crossdressers, hkcdfamily. Stepping out from the dark, a huge number of members appeared in a sudden and hkcdfamily became the only transgender forum at that time. Later, three similar forums emerged: cdgal, cd paradise and TSense. The first two forums specifically catered for crossdressers and TSense targeted mainly for transsexual people.

 

It is always not easy to step forward from the virtual world to reality. At that time, led by doctors, several people who had undergone SRS in Hong Kong formed a liaison group. The number of members was as high as over 20 in the later stage, including expatriates and cisgender scholars. In 2004, the liaison group registered as a society in the name of “Transgender Equality & Acceptance Movement” (TEAM). However, the organization has become silent in recent years. 

 

 “Genderconcerns” was established in 2005 and it focuses on hotline service to transgender people. Over the same period, there was also a team known as 蛇王工作室, dedicated to transgender sharing among different organizations and schools. By 2008, a number of transgender people and scholars set up “Transgender Resource Center” to promote transgender concept and to provide services across the transgender community. 

 

After years of development, there are still approximately less than 200 transgender people who are willing to show their faces in the community. The development of the transgender 

community still requires the efforts and perseverance of the people concerned. 

 

Transgender Population

Owing to their low visibility, there is no clear figure of the transgender population in a given society. Therefore it is difficult to understand their situation by simple statistics. The situation also varies in different countries and cultures. For example, some countries are more open to the diversity of gender, this will make it easier for transgender people to be present in public. Transgender people in the developed countries where information is more accessible will be more likely to accept themselves as transgender, thus increasing their visibility in society. Meanwhile, there seems to be relatively less transgender people in certain countries in which there are threat of life on them. 

 

The major reason for the high degree of concealment of transgender people in the society is the fear of rejection and discrimination. Besides, patriarchy of the traditional Chinese culture also deters transgender people from disclosing their identity. According to the Hong Kong government, there are about 100 cases of SRS performed in in the public hospital so far. We also believe that more transgender people are having SRS in countries such as Thailand, Taiwan and the United States who lives in Hong Kong and the estimated number of Transsexual people who have completed SRS is about 200 to 300.

 

According to two online forums in Hong Kong exclusive for crossdressers, they have over 51,000 and 23,000 members respectively at the end of 2016. Most of the members were male-to-female crossdressers (i.e. people who identify themselves as female while assigned as male at birth). Taking out repeated registrations, non-transgender people and non-residents, etc, a conservative estimate of transgender population is over 10,000 to 20,000 in Hong Kong. The number does not include those transgender people who are female to male, did not have access to the Internet, and those who did not dare to register on the website. Some research estimated that one in every 300-500 persons in the population is transgender which is quite identical to our estimation.

 

Why are there more Male-to-Female (MtF) Transgender People?

According to statistics from around the world, the proportion of “male-to-female (MtF)” and “female-to-male (FtM)” is nearly equal. The data of Hong Kong government hospitals also affirms this proportion. Perhaps, higher visibility of MtF made people feel they are more in number. There are a few possible reasons we can think of: 

 

● With regard to local observation, FtM transgender people in Hong Kong tend to be more independent and they participate mostly in small group gatherings, while MtF prefers large group gatherings and their social circle is relatively wide. They confide in friends, welcome peer supports and their identity is known to more people. 

● FtM will become more masculine after taking hormones and their voice will also change. It is easier for them to adopt into usual daily life. Instead the change of MtF after taking hormones is sometimes less obvious and it takes a long time for them to go through the transitioning process. 

● The change of life and clothing of FtM in transition is easier to handle since the changes are usually undetectable. On the contrary, MtF may have experienced a lot of difficulties during the early crossdressing stage. They may encounter a lot of problems in life where they need to gather information and experiences from members in the community. This helps the building of a strong relationship with and facilitates the development of the MtF community.

● The changes of MtF during transition are obvious, the reaction and impression will be stronger and more profound. 

 

Difficulties in Life

The difficulties transgender people encounter in their lives are complex. Here let us simplify it into two parts. The first part is before they disclose their gender identity and the second part is after coming out or undergoing enormous change in their appearance and lifestyles, or the situation after completing SRS.

 

Transgender people usually conceal and suppress their feelings before they accept they are different and recognise their true identity in front of others as they do not believe that there are people who will understand them. They even believe they are abnormal or insane. It is hard for transgender people to have someone to talk to and they always feel lonely. They may force themselves to dress according to the social norm so as to cover up their true selves. By and by their suppressed feeling lurking deep inside may disrupt their lives. They become withdrawn or negative about life, and they are likely to hurt themselves or commit suicide. They will often attribute all unhappy incidents in life to their gender identity issue. 

 

When a transgender person begins to accept the other side of themself, their appearance and way of life are likely to change to a great extent. They have to face questions from family members, neighbours, relatives, friends, and colleagues. Sometimes they may feel uncomfortable even though the questioners bear no malice, since they may not be well prepared to face such in-depth and harsh questions. 

 

In addition, they also wish to dress and express in line with their gender identity in workplace. However, the company or colleagues may find it incongruous. They may also encounter difficulties when they dress up for job interviews. In particular, transgender people often have to face the embarrassment of using the toilet in public and in workplace. For those who have completed the SRS and have their identity documents’ sex marker changed, it presents no problem. However, before the surgery or when they are undergoing “Real Life Experience” (RLE) required by the sex clinic, it is very difficult for them to position their gender in daily life without the gender marker change on their ID card. For as simple as using the toilet, some may choose to use the one for the disabled, or simply try not to use the toilet in public places to avoid embarrassment and this often causes different health issues to them.

 

Religious belief may also be one of the challenges to be tackled. It may be a great impact to transgender people themselves, or to believers in the opposition group. 

 

Of course we have met transgender people who are positive about life and we hope their experience can encourage more people to come out of the haze and live a meaningful life. 

 

Discrimination

The degree of acceptance of transgender people in Hong Kong during the last two to three decades has increased, and the term “transgender” introduced to Hong Kong in recent years entailed a more positive image than the older terms. Previously men wearing women’s clothes are often known as the metamorphosis or “人妖” (human monster), or considered a criminal intent. Yet women in men’s wear seems not to be a big problem. 

 

However, since it is very difficult for transgender people to disclose their identity when they encounter discrimination situations and there are a great reluctance for them to report cases to proper channels, coupled with their low visibility in society, it is indeed hard to analyze the existing discrimination situation toward transgender people. 

 

From the experience of the community, there is less discrimination against transgender people in industry like design, IT and fashion while they encounter unpleasant experience more seriously in the workplace, job application, church, school, places of entertainment, immigration, detention and imprisonment, etc. 

 

Legal Protection

At present, there is no legislation in Hong Kong to protect the rights of transgender people. The existing Sex Discrimination Ordinance is not able to cover the situation of transgender people. Only those being diagnosed as "Gender Identity Disorder (GID)" can be protected by the Disability Discrimination Ordinance (DDO). The reason is that GID is classified as mental disease in Hong Kong which is in turn a transgender stigma. A recent update of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder" (DSM V) by American Psychological Association in 2013 has replaced GID with Gender Dysphoria which eliminates the pathological implication of transgender status and hope Hong Kong will follow later.

 

Transsexual

Is Transsexual Psychotic?

Currently in Hong Kong and most countries in the world, people who want to have SRS are required to undergo psychiatric and psychological assessment for a minimum of two years. Once they are being diagnosed as having GID, they can be referred to the surgical department and schedule for SRS. Currently in Hong Kong, only government hospitals this surgery and the services was centralized in Prince Wales Hospital’s as Gender Identity Disorder Clinic in Oct 2016. 

 

The long history of the western countries using the old version of WPATH’s (named as the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association before 2006) Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders version 6 (SOC-6) and the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV ) as the blueprint made GID still a psychiatric disorder in some countries including Hong Kong. 

 

As a result of the action of the concerned parties, the world Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) released the seventh version of SOC in late 2011. Taking the perspective of transgender people, numerous amendments and additions were made in order to clarify public’s misunderstanding of transgender people in the past. The removal of GID in DSM V clearly indicates that gender incongruence alone is not a mental illness. Yet the recent update of the SOC-7 and DSM V will not be effective in Hong Kong shortly and we hope with the efforts of the international experts in the field, there will soon be some changes.

 

There will be the new version of International Classification of Diseases (ICD 11) to be released in 2018 by WHO which will remove GID from the category Mental and Behavioural Disorders. The WHO proposes a ”gender incongruence” category under the new section 6: ”Conditions related to sexual health” which will further eliminate the stigmatization of transgender people.

 

The Stages of Self-discovery

From growing up to discovering themself, a transgender person may have gone through several stages. From birth to school age, they began to learn to differentiate between men and women. During the nursery period, teachers asked the boys and girls to line up separately to the toilet. All these lead them to query about their genders and their own gender. So in general, from four to eight years’ old, transgender kids began to realise their own differences. This is the Stage of Enlightenment.

 

Their whole school years are filled with endless self-doubt and struggles. This is an important stage of physical and mental development of oneself. Puberty could be one of the most difficult issues they will be encountered. If transgender children cannot accept being different and go their own way, they may live in pain and confusion. They cannot find anyone to talk to, nor do they know how to face the issues. They are also likely to be bullied at school. This is the Stage of Doubt.

 

When they began to understand their uniqueness, they will continue to explore their own needs. They will go everywhere to look for relevant information. When they become economically independent, they may begin to purchase clothing of the opposite sex. However, people in this stage are most likely to suffer from great pain and inner conflicts. It will be even more worse if they are in a relationship as it make things more complicated for them to deal with both their own gender issue as well as romantic love and sexual desire at the same time. They are constantly tortured by craving to be another sex and self-blaming, and many of them might contemplate suicide if they cannot find any support. This stage is regarded as Exploration and Struggles.

 

Some transgender people may seek help from social workers, counselors, doctors, and even the church. However, the public’s limited understanding of transgender people may sometimes even worsen the situation. In recent years, there are organizations established by transgender people and the emergence of inclusive churches providing a better support to this helpless group. Regardless of whether those people will eventually decide to undergo SRS, it is important to deal with their emotional and psychological needs, help them understand and accept themselves so they will live in a positive way.

 

Assessment Process for Surgery

In order to undergo SRS in Hong Kong, one needs to go through the required assessment procedure. Psychiatric and psychology assessments help determine whether the person is suitable for SRS. The whole process also involve professionals in occupational therapy, speech therapy, Genetics, Endocrinology, Gynecology, social worker and Legal Counsel. Prior to 2005, the "Sex Clinic" of the Queen Mary Hospital was responsible for the assessment of gender identity cases of all districts and providing one-stop services. However, the clinic was closed due to some doctors in the sex clinic retired and lack of resources. After that, services are supposed to be handled by hospital in its own cluster where the patients live but doctors were not trained to deal with such cases and there were only very limited support for people who have been anxiously waiting for SRS for almost 10 years. In the past few years, some doctors who are concerned with transgender people’s needs have been working hard to resume the assessment services in different clusters and finally the new Gender Identity Disorder Clinic was set up in Oct 2016 at Prince of Wales Hospital to provide integrated services for transgender people for all districts including SRS. 

 

Generally, the assessment process takes a minimum of two years. The most important part of the assessment process is Psychiatric and Psychological assessment, Hormone Replacement Therapy, and Real Life Experience. The lengthy process ensures the patient to have a clear understanding of their own needs to avoid making the wrong decision for an irreversible surgery.

 

Real Life Experience (RLE)

Those patients who are assessed will have to spend at least one year or more to live full time in their desired gender in order to assure that they can psychologically function in that gender role. The doctor will issue a letter certifying that the patient is being assessed and need to dress in their desired gender so as to avoid trouble when using the toilet or in other occasions. However, since the gender marker on their identity card cannot be changed at this moment without full SRS, they may encounter difficulties at work and in other circumstances. Therefore, the doctors will usually discuss with the patient for a partial RLE.

 

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

In the assessment process, doctor will start prescribing hormone replacement therapy to the patient once diagnosed with GID with no other major issues for SRS. HRT may be given by either oral or injection. The patient will experience a certain degree of physical and mental changes including the development of the secondary sex characteristics of the desired sex, such as breasts and a feminine pattern of hair, fat, and muscle distribution and other side effects. It cannot undo many of the changes produced by naturally occurring puberty. To some extent, some of these effects are reversible. This stage helps to determine if the patients are ready for the surgery and live in the opposite gender in the future. 

 

After the completion of surgery, the patient might require to continue the HRT as to keep the hormonal balance that the body needs. The side effects of medication vary from person to person and patients should decide whether to use it persistently or not. However, it is not necessary to take hormones for life.

 

Surgical Consideration

Sex reassignment surgery is the surgical procedures to alter the body  to align with their desired gender so that they look and function like the opposite sex. It usually involves genital reconstruction, but there may be other necessary surgeries including chest reconstruction or breast augmentation, facial plastic reconstruction, Adam’s apple reduction, or even vocal surgery. All these are to facilitate the patient’s integration into the new life after surgery.

 

The surgery is more complex than most people can imagine, and it involves the reconstruction of sexual organs. It’s more accurate to call it Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) or Genital Reconstruction Surgery (GRS) than people usually name it as Sex Change Surgery. There is a more progressive term called Gender Affirming Surgery being introduced in recent years.

 

The most important and complex part of the surgery is the reconstruction of sexual organs, which deals with the appearance and function of the sexual characteristics of their identified gender. Genital reassignment reshapes the genital by using their existing body parts and nerve tissue to build a tactile and resembling organ. 

 

Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female is relatively simple. It usually includes breast augmentation, urethral displacement, penile and testicular resection, vaginoplasty (i.e. foreskin is inverted as a flap while preserving its blood and nerve supplies to form a fully sensitive vagina, and part of the glans of penis reshaped into a clitoris), labiaplasty (i.e. the scrotal tissue forms the labia majora and minora). In some cases, colon vaginoplasty may be a choice in which a section of sigmoid colon may be grafted in a vaginal lining that will form a deeper vagina with natural secretion. It also includes chondrolaryngoplasty (i.e. the thyroid cartilage is reduced in size by shaving down the cartilage through an incision in the throat). This series of surgical procedures is usually completed in one or two operations. 

 

Sex reassignment surgery for female-to-male is more complex. It usually involves a variety of surgical procedures including bilateral mastectomy (i.e. the removal of the breasts and the shaping of a male contoured chest with grafting and the reconstruction of the nipple-areola), and hysterectomy (i.e. the removal of the vagina, uterus and ovaries). After that, phalloplasty (i.e. the construction of artificial penis) will take place. The graft is usually taken from the arm, the leg, or the flap, bone, muscle and nerve tissues, and then transplanted to the appropriate location. It normally takes several large-scale surgeries to complete. Depending on the desired effect, different techniques for penile reconstruction will be employed. However, since phalloplasty is invasive, involves higher risk and with a low success rate, a lot of people will choose to have metoidioplasty/clitoral release or even not undergo a complete genital reassignment surgery.

 

Surgery is the Only Way Out?

For a person with gender dysphoria, living as another gender is a lifelong hope. The price for this is, however, extremely high until this moment in Hong Kong and in a lot of other countries. Apart from the invasive surgery, there is pressure from society as well as family and friends. For transgender people who do not opt for SRS, there seems to be no solution to their eternal quest. 

 

According to Transgender Resource Center’s understanding, the source of stress and anxiety of transgender people is a combined result of complex social and self-identity construction, intertwined with physiological and psychological factors. Issues are not only from within the subject’s own body and mind. And yet we must understand changes in the society do not take place in a fortnight. If transgender people sort out the issues they are facing and unite with their transgender movement counterparts, improvement of the environment for transgender people can be achieved more effectively.

 

In the past, issues and services related to transgender were being dominated by outsiders who lack understanding of and show little empathy towards transgender people. From medical, counseling to the legal system, the outsiders determine the fates of many transgender people. In recent years, leaders from the community have stood up in many places, leading the equality movements. The long-buried voices are heard. Visibility of the transgender community has been raised and more understanding from the public. Some public services also take into consideration the genuine need of the transgender community.

 

It is believed that in the near future, surgery is only one of the means for transgender people to express their identity and orientation, rather than the only way out. 

 

Gender Marker Change

All residents of Hong Kong who have undergone SRS in a recognized hospital in any country may submit application to the Immigration Department (IMMD) to change the gender marker on their identity card. Applications should be submitted together with a medical certificate issued by the doctor who performed SRS in accordance with the criteria set out below. Upon completion of the vetting process, the change of gender markers on other legal documents or certificates, such as passports, HKEAA certificates, banks, insurance, Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macau Residents, driving licenses, etc. may follow. However, the mechanism of gender marker change in corresponding documents in some schools and organizations is absent, while change of gender marker in passports issued by other countries are subject to the provisions of that particular country.

 

The following are the criteria for the completion of SRS set out by the Immigration Department: 

(i) For sex change from female to male

removal of the uterus and ovaries; and

construction of a penis or some form of a penis

(ii) For sex change from male to female

removal of the penis and testes; and

construction of a vagina

 

Please refer to Q22 at www.gov.hk/tc/residents/immigration/idcard/hkic/faq_hkic.htm for more information. 

 

Post-Operative Life

In the past, most of the post-op TS have chosen to lead an entirely different life after the completion of SRS. They may conceal their past for fear of rejection or because they want to be more secure in a relationship. Their lives are no different from those ordinary people and they have developed their career in different fields. Their quality of life is not as bad as most people imagine. It is found that emotional anxiety is likely to arise in transgender people who shut themselves off lest their identity be revealed, this usually built up anxiety and unhappiness. On the contrary, post-op TS who keep a connection with the community are less stressed out in life and tend to be happier. 

 

Rumor has it that transsexualr people after SRS have a short life span but this argument is unfounded. Transsexual people were under a great pressure facing the stigmatization and discrimination from the society in the past. Some of them chose to end their life prematurely even after the surgery. There are also people suffering from overdose of hormonal treatment to keep their beautiful figure and at the same time keeping the functionality of their penis like those performing on stage and doing sex work in Thailand. They might encounter different kinds of health issues. After all, the real situation can only be revealed after more transgender people tell their own stories. 

 

Gender Recognition Ordinance

Although a transgender person can change the gender marker in all Hong Kong issued identity documents after the completion of SRS, as stipulated by the Immigration Department in accordance with its administrative guidelines. However, there is still no law that clearly defines the legal gender of a transgender person. After the vote down of the Marriage (Amendment) Bill by the Legislative Council in 2014, a transgender person who has completed SRS and has the gender marker changed on their identity card may still lawfully marry someone in the opposite sex in Hong Kong according to the judgement of the Court of Final Appeal. However, the gender status of the transgender people in all other laws is still in doubt. In 2014, the Government set up an Inter-Departmental Working group to study the legislation on the Gender Recognition Ordinance but no public announcements of the study was made until the end of 2016.

 

Crossdresser

Introduction

Crossdressing is the act of wearing the clothes of the opposite gender to express their dissatisfaction of their own. Crossdressing could be a kind of protest, or an external expression of their own feelings. To a crossdresser, sometimes it is a matter of beauty or the right fitting (sorry r i dun understand right fitting ar). It is a natural thing to do or sometimes they do not even have a choice.

 

This kind of choice may lead to certain social pressure or even persecution from the outside world. Xunzi said: “Nothing is originally appropriate, but accepted through common practice”. We cannot help but ask, who determines these boundaries? 

 

Crossdressing = Abnormal? 

Crossdressing denotes the act of a person who wears clothing of the opposite sex. Any person can have the experience of crossdress and it does not mean that there is any problem. As society continues to evolve, clothing of men and women is undergoing considerable alteration. Nowadays, clothing and fashion has become more gender vague. But in fact those identified as women’s clothing are originally men’s wear in some old days. The degree of societal acceptance for crossdressing varies for male and female. Females may be given more latitude than males for wearing clothing associated with the opposite gender. On the contrary, males in women’s outfits may be regarded as abnormal. 

 

Only a person who has the desire to wear clothes of the opposite sex with consistency either full time or part of the time will be regarded as crossdresser. Cross-dressers in most of the cases only define men who like to dress as women, while women dress up as men does not constitute a significant issue of identity in life. In Hong Kong, transgender people who do not have a transsexual desire or who do not have a strong and persistent sense of dysphoria with the sex assigned at birth are usually defined as crossdresser, which includes different sexual orientations. The proportion of heterosexual seems to be higher in this group of people due to reasons yet to be explored.

 

The cause of crossdressing desire in some people is not known yet. Many of them who crossdress describe it as an outlet for stress. After all, this may be related to gender identity anxiety but the extent of the influence is not strong enough for them to alter their bodies to align with the desired gender. 

 

Cross-dressers usually have a stable job, and their life is no different than others. They may have a partner or are married, or they may even be a father. Some of their family members understand their crossdressing behavior. Unfortunately, as crossdressing is still a taboo in society, their anxiety cannot be relieved no matter how hard they try. Actually crossdressers just, to a limited extent, wish to express their gender expression rather than disturb other people’s lives. It is more accurate to say that society is not inclusive enough of gender diversity than to say crossdressers are abnormal. 

 

Only Men Like to Dress as Women?

In the feudal society, the roles of men and women are very strict in both the West and in China, especially for women. Women are expected to stay at home and listen to what men tell them to do. Since coming out from the patriarchal world, women often present in masculine dresses, or do it as a form of political protest. 

 

Today, women’s attire sees a wide spectrum, from very feminine to very masculine. They can dress more masculine at any time won’t cause any troubles at all. It broadens the gender expression of women in quite some aspects yet not all. We cannot deny that there are women who crossdress. The butch women in the lesbian subculture are females manifesting more masculine traits. In Wikipedia, a tomboy is a girl who exhibits characteristics or behaviors considered typical of a boy, including wearing masculine clothing and engaging in games and activities that are physical in nature and are considered in many cultures to be unfeminine or the domain of boys. The reason why there is no known crossdressing women is that it is unnecessary to identify them as such. We only recognise them until these people express the need to alter their sex. 

 

Sexual Behavior and Crossdressing

In the past, crossdressers refers to men who love to wear women's clothing. They have neither the intention to alter their gender, nor are they homosexual. That means they are usually men who identity themselves as male and attracted to women. Crossdressing is only a habit or lifestyle, and more often linked with sexual behavior.

 

We cannot rule out such possibilities, in-depth study of the transgender groups showed many intricate relationships were previously not being observed and analyzed. In the past or even today, there are people who have desire to alter their sex, people who are heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and asexualin the crossdressing community. We are indeed unable to separate "crossdressing" and "transsexuality" in just two simple groups. Ignoring the complex uniqueness of an individual by causally labeling someone is equivalent to slander.

 

Let's start with the issue of sexuality. Supposed a man has sexual fantasies, needs, and even sex behaviors after crossdressing, we may mistakenly focus solely on his crossdressing and ignore the other external conditions. Crossdressing may only be one of the conditions arousing this person‘s sex drive. Sex drive for this particular person may not always involve crossdressing. And crossdressing behaviour for this person may not always involve sex drive.

 

Here is another example: I want to have sleep not because I was wearing pajamas, have spent three hours watching TV, it is now 11 pm or I have gone to toilet five times today. It was just that I feel sleepy and need to satisfy my hunger. People should not conjecture that I am sleepy as I was dressed in pajamas, as there is no cause-and-effect relationship between the two. Similarly, we should not blindly say that a person has sexual fantasies and desire for sex because of crossdressing. Whether or not there is a link between them really depends and a lot is still unknown to us. 

 

We also found that transgender people’s sexual desire level affects their determination to alter their gender. It does not affect the degree of desire for sex change but it is one of the factors being considered before making a decision.

 

No Need for SRS?

As mentioned, there are people who identify themselves as crossdressers wish to undergo SRS. From our interviews with crossdressers, we were surprised to find most of them wanted to be the opposite sex. Yet they felt that physically they do not qualify to be another gender and would not possible for them to do so. In addition, after weighing the pros and cons for themselves and for their families, some of them determinedly decided not to realize their own dream. Some of them think that they do not need it, or they think it is unnecessary to undergo invasion operation to change the body condition.

 

Self-recognition

Self-recognition among most crossdressers is rather low. Thinking that their desire of crossdressing is unusual, or even abomination. On the contrary, those with strong self-recognition believe that other people in society failed to understand their behaviours, causing them not to confess or reveal their identity. Innately they feel something wrong, but no matter how hard they try, they cannot get rid of the desire. Since they can only live in constant torment, they can only pretend to be a happy man.

 

Way Out

One of the key focus in the transgender movement is to facilitate this group to accept themselves and to look at life in a positive manner. Since it is impossible to change their tendency in crossdressing as we know, it is better to explore the bright side of it. No matter what, as long as crossdressing does not inflict harm on others, there is always a chance to make people understand.

 

Crossdressing can in fact be a form of art or a cultural expression. It takes tremendous skill and effort to look truly alike, expressing both the inner and external beauty of the gender they aspire to be. Transgender people have lived between both genders and always more sensitive and have a better understanding than other people about the divergences and contradictions between men and women. Use it well and we can benefit a lot of people in the world who are exhausted but still have to live their lives in the other gender.

 

Come Out

Come out of the closet

Come out is a figure of speech for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Since disclosing their identity involves risk, coming out is usually the last resort. 

 

Major facets for coming out:

1. Coming out to friends: LGBT people is under a lot of stress and they may not have LGBT friends to support them. When they are still in doubt about their SOGIE issues or still exploring their identity, they might not feel comfortable in joining the LGBT community, nor will they seek relevant support services. For this reason, they need friends to listen to them. They usually talk to friends who are more trustful or who they are not closely related to in their network to minimize the risk.

 

2. Coming out to family: A few of the LGBT people may be alienated or even at feud with family due to their SOGIE issues. In any case, family is always family. There are also quite a lot of LGBT people who have close relationship with family like most people. It is hard for them to conceal their identity with those they love and ultimately hope their family can understand and accept them as they are. Family acceptance has a great impact on LGBT people as it allows them a great support to face the ups and downs in life. There is always family pressure to get married in traditional families and is  often a source of stress to LGBT people. Coming out to their family seems to be essential yet a big challenge. (For more on family relationships, please refer to the "Transgender Parents' Handbook" of Gossip Boys and Girls series).

 

3. Coming out in workplace: LGBT people who are positive about their identity and have confidence that both their employer and colleagues, they will have the courage to come out to the co-workers. On the contrary, in the absence of a safe and friendly environment, they are less willing to take the risks to lose their job or promotion opportunities. Working in a LGBT-friendly working environment releases a lot of stress for their daily life and in the same time boost up their potential and performance that benefit the company ultimately.

 

4. Coming out to church: In fact, there are many LGBT people concealing their identities in almost every church. They share the same beliefs in different religious like others. Some of them grew up in the church environment with their parents, and some joined the church for different reasons. In any case, unless the church does not take a discriminating stance against LGBT people, they are likely choose to leave or confess their identity due to the doctrine of the church. Unfortunately, some churches will force them to convert or not to tell anybody in the church so as to stay there. All these hurt their faith in their religious beliefs.

 

5. Coming out publicly: Publicly come out, or being an openly LGBT person mean that they do not conceal their identity to anybody but not necessary disclose their identity to the public, such as to the media. Usually LGBT people who are very well committed with their identity with a positive thinking, and well prepared to face attacks and challenges will ultimately come out publicly. Public disclosure is also a very powerful advocacy tool in the equality movement, but that person must has a deep understanding of the community and theoretical knowledge. They should also be a person with logical thinking and strong public speaking technique, otherwise they will very easily be under attack by both the public as well as from within the LGBT community.

 

6. Kicked out of the closet (by others): It is the act of disclosing an LGBT person's sexual orientation or gender identity without that person's consent while they are not ready yet.

 

Trans Ally

Introduction

Being a Transgender Ally one does not have to fully comprehend, understand or agree about what is transgender. What most important is to accept others who are different from you Believe that each individual is unique and should be respected. Everyone have inherent rights and obligations in society and should not be treated unequally due to their different sexual orientation or gender identity.

 

Trans Buddy

Trans Buddy denotes a friend or more than an ally of transgender people. Growing up, transgender people often experienced suppression of feelings and discriminations due to traditional moral and ethical values. They gradually formed a distrust of others, a self-defence mechanism. They often believe that no one will accept and understand what they want and will lead to different kind of difficulties in their life. The meaning of Trans Buddy is to encourage more people in society to be their supporters by entering into their life,  learn more about what is transgender, the community characteristics and the difficulties they have they have experienced in daily life. Advocating equal rights in daily life so that transgender people can live a better life. Be their friend so that they can be more confident to reveal and discover their true self, and thus able to choose the best way to live. Being a Trans Buddy, the most important is accompany and listening. Trans Buddy is definitely the guardian angel to every transgender person that let them dare to be who they are.

 

Whether you have LGBT people around you, or do not know if there are, you can follow some simple principles and become more LGBT-sensitive. You are not able to know whether there are any LGBT people in your life as in many cases they cannot be recognized simply by their appearance or behavior. This group of people will not open to you unless there is a safe environment. It’s all depends on you for such an environment.

Do’s 

● Listen patiently to their story, be prepared to learn and challenge your gender awareness with an open mind.

● Ask the person how they want to be called or addressed.

● Say something that encourages, such as "No matter what gender you are, you are always a good friend of mine", "What a company requires is a person's ability, not their gender".

● Talk about some positive LGBT icons.

● Display some LGBT-friendly publications, signs, rainbow flags etc. in a conspicuous place.

● Promote anti-discrimination messages to friends in a friendly manner; understand more about human rights awareness and the meaning of LGBT equality. Changes come from love and sharing, not coercion and blame.

 

Don’ts

● Don’t judge or discuss a person's SOGIE status or try to find out whether they are transgender, homosexual or not.

● Don't criticize or deny but respect their self-understanding when you are being told about their SOGIE status.

● Don't casually disclose their SOGIE status to others or even to their family unless you have their consent.

● Don't ask them to or help them to make a decision if they are still exploring their SOGIE status. Gender is non-binary and can be fluid. For gender-fluid people, they do not identify themselves as having a fixed gender. They may also change over time, environment or mood. Gender can also be undefined and doubting it is not anything wrong.

● Don't often stress or overemphasize gender stereotypes and binary sexuality, such as "men are strong" or "women should be feminine", etc.

● Even if you want to express your acceptance or friendliness, you shouldn’t keep mentioning their own SOGIE status, unless they initiate it.

● If you do not know about the status of someone, you should avoid gossiping or joking on their SOGIE status. You should be sensitive and pay attention to the reaction of others regarding the SOGIE topics.

● You should avoid using gender pronouns such as "Mr" or "Miss" towards LGBT people even if society generally considered it a courtesy to do so. It is better to make sure what pronoun a person prefers by asking them.

● Don't make assumptions about a person's other half must be the opposite sex, so avoid question like: "What is your girlfriend's job?" because this might embarrass others. You can try to use "partner" or "the other half" instead.

● Avoid any physical contact even the person is the same gender as you. You should be scrupulous with all people even though you understand their SOGIE status.

● Don't ask a person about their name used before, or ask to see their old photos, unless you know the person does not mind. Some transgender people are very concerned about their past or even feel disgusted with it. Mentioning it carelessly may hurt their feelings.

● Don't ask about the person's gender or their genitals condition unless you know it is ok to do so, and never make any judgement on that.

● The formation of identity and self-expression of transgender people vary from person to person and the process of exploration and transitioning is always different. We should not assume that a transgender person should achieve a certain standard or should entirely resemble the opposite gender, nor should one be forced to fit in with the social norm.

 

Hong Kong Transgender Legal Rights and Advocacy Timeline

*The timeline below shows only information we can collect at the moment and is not representing the whole history.

 

1. In 1985, the first sex reassignment surgery took place in Hong Kong.

 

2. In 1986, Queen Mary Hospital set up the very first Gender Identity Clinic in Hong Kong, led by Dr. Ng Man Lun. It provided one-stop assessment services to Hong Kong citizens who would like to undergo sex reassignment surgery. Members include clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, endocrinologists, gynecologists, urologists, social workers, genetics doctors, orthopedic surgeons and lawyers. 

 

3. In 1988, Dr Yuen Wai-cheung began to perform sex reassignment surgery in Hong Kong.

 

4. In 1998, 變性邊緣人 written by Ye Jiaming and Li Peien was published by SCMP Book Publishing Limited. 

 

5. In 2000, broadband Internet access became more common and the crossdressing community began to converge on the Internet. 

 

6. Around the year 2000, several people who underwent sex reassignment surgery in Hong Kong formed a liaison group (the predecessor of TEAM).

 

7. In 2002, the first large-scale forum for crossdressers, "hkcdfamily", established.

 

8. In June 2003, the renowned radio program host Hung Chiufung published his new book, 繾綣男女, which interviewed 10 persons including those who have desire to change their sex, underwent sex reassignment surgery and crossdressers.

 

9. In 2003, the term "transgender" was introduced in the community. Some of the transsexual people used this term to differentiate themselves from crossdressers which arouse some certain disputes within the community.

 

10. In 2003, effort made by transgender group and academics successfully requested the Immigration Department to remove the mark of gender change on the identity document.

 

11. 2004, the transsexual people liaison group was registered under the name “Transgender Equality and Acceptance Movement” (TEAM) as a non-profit-making organization.

 

12. In 2004, the community began to discuss the judicial review of the transsexual marriage rights to the Government, but was unable to find any litigants.

 

13. In 2005, Dr. Ng Man Lun retired, the only sex clinic for GID assessment was closed.

 

14. In 2008 Transgender Resource Center (TGR) was established.

 

15. In 2008, Miss W brought the case of transsexual marriage right to court for judicial review.

 

16. In 2009, W v Registrar of Marriages case was in session. With the extensive discussions in the community, Joanne Leung, chairperson of "Transgender Resource Center", standing out as a transgender lesbian Christian and received a lot media coverage. Transgender Resource Center has also begun to develop various supporting services to the group, as well as public education and advocacy projects.

 

17. In 2010, the Court of First Instance upheld the Registrar's decision on W’s case.

 

18. In 2011, the Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal of W’s case.

 

19. In 2011, Transgender Resource Center published the first Handbook: Gossip Boys and Girls Book 1 – Domestic Transgender Reading Manual.

 

20. In April 2012, the Immigration Department tightened the requirement for changing the gender marker on the ID card. The applicant must have completed the reconstruction of the genitalia and compulsory sterilization. Before the change, applicant only needs to show a letter from any surgeon in any country to certify the person has completed a sex reassignment surgery which could provide more flexibility.

 

21. In May 2013, the Court of Final Appeal overturned the Register’s decision and issued a stay in July to put the decision of letting W to marry her boyfriend on hold for a year to allow Government time to amend the law to give transsexual people the right of marriage after they change their sex. It also urged the Government to enact a comprehensive Gender Recognition Ordinance with reference to relevant laws of the United Kingdom.

 

22. In June 2013, the Government set up an Advisory Group on Eliminating Discrimination against Sexual Minorities, which included representatives of various stakeholders such as Joanne Leung, Siu Cho and Chan Chi-chuen.

 

23. In 2013, the Sexual Orientation Discrimination Legislation Front and Hong Kong Queer Alliance (HKQA) established, its aims to include sexual orientation and gender identity protection in the discrimination law. Transgender Resource Center is a member of the HKQA.

 

24. In 2013, to prepare for the Marriage (Amendment) Bill 2014 proposed by the Government, Transgender Resource Center and other LGBT, legal and human rights organizations organized seminars and discussions and put in much effort in lobby and advocacy work. Transgender Resource Center has a consent with the other LGB organizations of striving for no surgical requirements for transsexual people to acquire gender change on legal ID and recognize transsexual marriage is a heterosexual marriage which is not a stepstone for legalizing gay marriage.

 

25. In January 2014, the Equal Opportunities Commission launched the Study on Legislation against Discrimination on the Grounds of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status.

 

26. In February 2014, the Government submitted the Marriage (Amendment) Bill to the Legislative Council and set up an Inter-departmental Working Group to study the feasibility of the Gender Recognition Ordinance. However, the Government's proposal lacks public consultation and it was drafted based solely on the advice of one single expert who was the surgeon who conduct sex reassignment surgery in Hong Kong without enough knowledge on transgenderism and transsexualism. The draft was so crude that it aroused strong opposition from both groups who support as well as against transgender rights. It caused another round of extensive discussion and media coverage on transgender in Hong Kong.

 

27. In February 2014, Transgender Resource Center, Pink Alliance and Big Love Alliance formed a strategic front to express their views at the public hearing of the Government proposed Marriage (Amendment) Bill. There are also other transgender individuals, LGBT groups and anti-LGBT individuals made speeches also. Unfortunately the other transgender individuals expressed their support of full sex reassignment surgery as a prerequisite in the bill. Fortunately singer Denise Ho was one of the representative from Big Love Alliance gave a strong statement together with Joanne Leung and that became the focus of media coverage. Dr. Ng Man-lun, the first person to provide gender assessment in Hong Kong, opposed sex reassignment surgery as prerequisite, while Dr. Yuen Wai-cheung, insisted genital reconstruction was necessary which went against the prohibition of forced sterilization, advocated by United Nations and International Organizations. They have a very strong debate at the Legislative Council on the Marriage (Amendment) Bill.

 

28. In March 2014, TGR and TEAM received the letter from the World Association of Transgender Health Professionals (WPATH) to press the Government by supporting our position on no surgical requirement to acquire gender change for transgender people.

 

29. In March 2014, the Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau has commissioned Policy 21 Limited (the Consultant) to conduct a study on whether sexual minorities are being discriminated against in Hong Kong.

 

30. In March and October 2014, Pink Alliance members and Joanne Leung went to Geneva, United Nations and gave a verbal presentation to CEDAW committee members on how transgender people were being oppressed in Hong Kong.

 

31. In 2014, Transgender Resource Center and Pink Alliance began a lobbying campaign for Legislative Council members who did not have a strong oppose to LGBT equality. They also met with senior officials of the Security Bureau who proposed the Marriage (Amendment) Bill in the hope that the Government would not press the Pro-establishment legislators to pass the Bill.

 

32. In July 2014, the government has made an announcement as it failed to pass a revised draft within one year according to the CFA order. The announcement stated that any person in the same situation as Miss W, that has undergone the government-mandated complete SRS, whether they are FtM or MtF, can register for marriage in Hong Kong with the opposite sex in accordance to their new gender.

 

33. In October 2014, the Marriage (Amendment) Bill was being voted down during the second reading by a majority. 

 

34. In 2015, Miss W's solicitor prepared for a judicial review for Mr Q, who is a Female to Male transgender person has not undergone sex reassignment surgery unlike Ms W.

 

35. In 2015, Transgender Resource Center published Gossip Boys and Girls Book 2 – A Handbook for Parents of Trans People.

 

36. On 31 December 2015, the Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau published a two-year work report proposing a number of recommendation on safeguards against discrimination towards sexual minorities. However, no definite timetable has been set for legislative consultation.

 

37. On 26 January 2016, the Equal Opportunities Commission published the results of a study entitled "Report on Study on Legislation against Discrimination on the Grounds of

Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status".

 

38. In February 2016, Transgender Resource Center published the Gossip Boys and Girls Book 3 – A Handbook for Trans Ally.

 

Author’s bio

Joanne was born as a boy in Hong Kong and completed her Sex Reassignment Surgery in 2009 after struggling for over 40 years. Yet she still insists to claim herself as a Transgender Lesbian Christian even after she has acquired her legal gender as a female. She is now a public figure in the LGBT movement devoted to the supporting works in the community as well as advocacy for LGBT and human rights in Hong Kong and Mainland China.

 

She founded Transgender Resource Center (TGR) in 2008 and have been the chairperson since then. The aim of the organization is promote public understanding and acceptance regarding the transgender community, and to provide resources and support for transgender people. She also took up the chair position of the leading LGBT organization Pink Alliance from 2015 to 2017 and brought the largest LGBT activity Pink Dot into Hong Kong.

 

In 2012, Joanne was selected one of the "45 People aged 45 or below making a difference in Hong Kong" by Baccarat Magazine and in 2013 she received the “She dare to change” Award by HER Fund. In 2016, Joanne has taken a big step forward in the LGBT movement by joining the Democratic Party as the first transgender politician in Hong Kong and participated in the Legislative Council pre-election trying to push for change not only for the LGBT community but a broader group of people in civil society.

 

In 2017, the U.S. Consulate Hong Kong and Macau selected Joanne as this year’s nominee for the Secretary’s International Women of Courage Award honoring women who have demonstrated exceptional courage, strength, and leadership in acting to improve others' lives. 

 

Nobody is born LGBTI
We are just born different
Those labels exist because
of "Prejudice"

 

This project is sponsored by
Equal Opportunities (Sexual Orientation) Funding Scheme
Any contents of this material do not represent the position of Government of HKSAR

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以下提供的資訊,希望能夠讓有情緒困擾的人士作及時的幫助。由於不同情況的人士有不同之需要,以下的資訊只作參考之用,並不代表本組織的立場及方向,亦不涉推薦成分。

 

情緒支援網站

 

憂鬱小王子之路

Little Prince is Depressed

由香港大學香港賽馬會防止自殺研究中心提供

網站:http://www.depression.edu.hk

 

智友站 - 抑鬱症

Smart Patient - Depression

由香港醫院管理局提供

網站:http://www21.ha.org.hk/smartpatient/tc/chronicdiseases_zone/details.html?id=175

 

小鬱亂入

Depressy Trouble

由小鬱亂入提供

網站:http://depressytrouble.tw/index.php/quiz/

 

東華三院陳兆民中學

TWGHS-Chen Zao Men College

由東華三院陳兆民中學提供

網站:http://www.twghczm.edu.hk:82/tc/subject/Sex_Edu/ie/sexed/aids/aidtest1.htm

 


情緒支援讀物

 

抑鬱自療

作者 : 湯國鈞、李靜慧、呂慧詩

ISBN : 978-962-8913-95-4

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情緒支援機構

 

香港沙維雅人文發展中心

The Hong Kong Satir Center For Human Development

在本港推廣和發展沙維雅模式及其他人本主義的輔導及治療法

網站:http://www.hksatir.org/chinese/index.html

 

明愛「情性地帶」

Sexuality Zone - Supportive & Counseling Service on Sexual Behavior of Youth

青少年性健康支援及輔導服務

熱線: 6188-5555 (可whatsapp)

網站:http://www.facebook.com/caritas.szproject

 

香港撒瑪利亞防止自殺會

The Samaritan Befriends Hong Kong

於1960年成立,為一所植根於香港的志願服務機構。一直以聖經中好撒瑪利亞人的友善博愛和助人為樂的精神作榜樣,向絕望及瀕臨困境人士伸出同情之手,予以扶持及情緒輔導,達到助人自助的目標。

網站:http://www.sbhk.org.hk

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24小時熱線:2389-2222

 

東華三院「芷若園」

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals CEASE Crisis Centre

危機介入及支援服務,主要為性暴力受害人、面對家庭暴力或其他家庭危機的個人或家庭,提供全面的援助,包括24小時熱線、外展服務和短期住宿服務。

網站:http://ceasecrisis.tungwahcsd.org

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24小時熱線:18281